Readiness-of-V2V-Technology-for-Application-812014.pdf - DOT HS 812 014 August 2014 Vehicle-to-Vehicle Communications Readiness of V2V Technology for

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Unformatted text preview: DOT HS 812 014 August 2014 Vehicle-to-Vehicle Communications: Readiness of V2V Technology for Application DISCLAIMER This publication is distributed by the U.S. Department of Transportation, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, in the interest of information exchange. The opinions, findings, and conclusions expressed in this publication are those of the authors and not necessarily those of the Department of Transportation or the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. The United States Government assumes no liability for its contents or use thereof. If trade or manufacturers’ names or products are mentioned, it is because they are considered essential to the object of the publication and should not be construed as an endorsement. The United States Government does not endorse products or manufacturers. Suggested APA Format Citation: Harding, J., Powell, G., R., Yoon, R., Fikentscher, J., Doyle, C., Sade, D., Lukuc, M., Simons, J., & Wang, J. (2014, August). Vehicle-to-vehicle communications: Readiness of V2V technology for application. (Report No. DOT HS 812 014). Washington, DC: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. Technical Report Documentation Page 1. Report No. 2. Government Accession No. 3. Recipient’s Catalog No. DOT HS 812 014 4. Title and Subtitle 5. Report Date Vehicle-to-Vehicle Communications: Readiness of V2V Technology for Application 7. Authors August 2014 6. Performing Organization Code 8. Performing Organization Report No. John Harding, Gregory Powell, Rebecca Yoon, Joshua Fikentscher, Charlene Doyle, Dana Sade, Mike Lukuc, Jim Simons and Jing Wang 9. Performing Organization Name and Address 10. Work Unit No. (TRAIS) National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 1200 New Jersey Avenue SE. Washington, DC 20590 11. Contract or Grant No. 12. Sponsoring Agency Name and Address 13. Type of Report and Period Covered Research 14. Sponsoring Agency Code 15. Supplementary Notes 16. Abstract The purpose of this research report is to assess the readiness for application of vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) communications, a system designed to transmit basic safety information between vehicles to facilitate warnings to drivers concerning impending crashes. The United States Department of Transportation and NHTSA have been conducting research on this technology for more than a decade. This report explores technical, legal, and policy issues relevant to V2V, analyzing the research conducted thus far, the technological solutions available for addressing the safety problems identified by the agency, the policy implications of those technological solutions, legal authority and legal issues such as liability and privacy. Using this report and other available information, decision-makers will determine how to proceed with additional activities involving vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V), vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I), and vehicle-to-pedestrian (V2P) technologies. 17. Key Words 18. Distribution Statement vehicle-to-vehicle communications, crash avoidance, connected vehicle, safety applications, model deployment, safety pilot, vehicle awareness device, integrated device, aftermarket safety device, communication security, security credential management system, V2V technology Document is available to the public from the National Technical Information Service 19 Security Classif. (of this report) 21 No. of Pages 20. Security Classif. (of this page) 327 Unclassified Unclassified Form DOT F 1700.7 (8-72) Reproduction of completed page authorized i 22. Price Table of Contents I. Executive Summary ........................................................................................................................... xiii II. Introduction ........................................................................................................................................... 1 A. Purpose of this report ........................................................................................................................ 1 B. History of V2V communication research program ........................................................................... 3 1. History of ITS ............................................................................................................................... 3 2. History of V2V research program and its role in ITS ................................................................... 4 3. The Connected Vehicle Safety Pilot Program .............................................................................. 8 4. Studies related to V2V light-vehicle research............................................................................. 10 5. Vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) ................................................................................................... 11 III. Safety Need ..................................................................................................................................... 15 A. Crashes potentially addressed by V2V technology ......................................................................... 16 B. Potential for V2V to address vehicle crashes.................................................................................. 24 C. Ways of addressing the safety need ................................................................................................ 25 1. Scenarios addressed uniquely by vehicle-to-vehicle communications ....................................... 25 2. Scenarios also addressed by vehicle sensor-based systems ........................................................ 27 3. Scenarios possibly addressed by a combination of vehicle resident sensors and V2V communications ............................................................................................................................. 28 D. Types of V2V devices ..................................................................................................................... 29 1. OEM devices............................................................................................................................... 29 2. Aftermarket devices .................................................................................................................... 29 3. Infrastructure-based devices ....................................................................................................... 32 IV. Scope and Legal Authority ............................................................................................................. 33 A. B. NHTSA’s scope and legal authority and how it applies to vehicle to vehicle communication ...... 33 1. Integrated OEM V2V technologies............................................................................................. 36 2. Integrated aftermarket equipment ............................................................................................... 37 3. Non-integrated aftermarket equipment ....................................................................................... 38 4. Software that aids or updates the V2V system............................................................................ 40 5. Roadside infrastructure (V2I) ..................................................................................................... 41 Agency actions that are practicable and consistent with its legal authority .................................... 45 ii 1. Elements of the Safety Act that would apply to potential future agency actions........................ 45 2. Safety standards for DSRC ......................................................................................................... 54 3. Safety standards for DSRC-enabled safety applications ............................................................. 59 4. Discussion of need for additional legal authority prior to taking regulatory actions regarding vehicle to vehicle communication ................................................................................................. 62 C. Non-regulatory actions required to stand up V2V communications ............................................... 62 D. Authority for the spectrum in which V2V will operate, and how it could affect the development of a V2V system .................................................................................................................................. 63 V. Technical Practicability....................................................................................................................... 65 A. Technical practicability and its importance to an agency decision ................................................. 65 B. Overview of hardware components enabling system operation...................................................... 65 1. Components used in testing ........................................................................................................ 66 2. Components required for V2V system operation........................................................................ 67 3. Vehicle-based hardware .............................................................................................................. 67 4. Non-vehicle-based hardware....................................................................................................... 69 C. Overview of software enabling system operation ........................................................................... 70 D. Interoperability................................................................................................................................ 71 1. Interoperability and its importance ............................................................................................. 71 2. Current maturity level of V2V wireless communication channels ............................................. 87 3. Interoperability performance requirements ................................................................................. 96 E. System Limitations ....................................................................................................................... 105 1. What are the known system limitations for V2V communication? .......................................... 105 2. Potential mitigation strategies for known system limitations ................................................... 112 3. Device installation constraints and requirements...................................................................... 114 4. Managing device updates and improvements ........................................................................... 115 F. Global activities and differences in V2V systems ........................................................................ 116 1. Research and/or implementation of V2V communications in other regions ............................ 116 2. Differences between the current U.S. regional vision and other regions .................................. 116 VI. V2V Safety Applications .............................................................................................................. 119 A. Performance metrics currently available for V2V safety applications ......................................... 119 B. The safety applications.................................................................................................................. 120 C. Key Findings for each V2V Safety Application ........................................................................... 121 1. Forward Collision Warning ...................................................................................................... 121 2. Emergency Electronic Brake Lights ......................................................................................... 122 iii 3. Do Not Pass Warning................................................................................................................ 122 4. Left Turn Assist ........................................................................................................................ 122 5. Intersection Movement Assist................................................................................................... 123 6. Blind Spot + Lane Change Warning ......................................................................................... 123 D. Key conclusions for each application ........................................................................................... 124 1. Forward Collision Warning ...................................................................................................... 124 2. Blind Spot Warning + Lane Change Warning .......................................................................... 124 3. Do Not Pass Warning................................................................................................................ 124 4. Left Turn Assist ........................................................................................................................ 125 5. Emergency Electronic Brake Light ........................................................................................... 126 6. Intersection Movement Assist................................................................................................... 126 7. False warning improvement research ....................................................................................... 126 8. Performance measures improvement research .......................................................................... 127 E. Driver-vehicle interface ................................................................................................................ 129 F. Summary of major recommendations concerning safety applications.......................................... 130 G. System compliance and enforcement ............................................................................................ 130 VII. Public Acceptance ......................................................................................................................... 133 A. The importance of public acceptance............................................................................................ 133 1. Potential key aspects of consumer acceptance for V2V communication.................................. 133 2. Potential issues with industry support for V2V communication systems ................................. 136 3. Preliminary information on consumer acceptance .................................................................... 137 VIII. Privacy Considerations ................................................................................................................. 144 A. Privacy considerations – what they are and why they are important ............................................ 144 B. 1. Transmission, collection, storage, and sharing of V2V data..................................................... 145 2. Privacy policies framework ...................................................................................................... 146 3. The fair information practice principles.................................................................................... 148 NHTSA’s interim privacy risk assessment ................................................................................... 150 1. V2V system needs/functions that necessitate data transactions posing potential risks to privacy ..................................................................................................................................... 153 2. Potential risks to privacy introduced by V2V communications or other data transactions necessary to satisfy system need .................................................................................................................. 154 3. Technical, physical and/or policy controls evaluated to minimize potential privacy risks.......... 155 4. Significance of the identified potential privacy risks................................................................... 156 IX. V2V Communications Security .................................................................................................... 158 iv A. Overview and importance of security ........................................................................................... 158 1. Security options considered ...................................................................................................... 159 2. Overview of PKI and how it works .......................................................................................... 163 3. Limitations of existing PKI systems ......................................................................................... 165 B. Current V2V security design concept ........................................................................................... 165 1. SCMS component functions ..................................................................................................... 168 2. Pseudonym functions/certificates ............................................................................................. 168 3. Initialization functions/enrollment certificate ........................................................................... 171 4. Comparing a basic PKI to the V2V security design ................................................................. 174 5. V2V security research conducted or underway ........................................................................ 177 6. Overall application of cryptography in V2V communications ................................................. 179 7. Additional information on the current V2V security system design and research.................... 182 C. Overview of system integrity and management ............................................................................ 184 1. Key elements of system integrity and management .................................................................. 186 2. SCMS ownership and operation ............................................................................................... 193 3. “Enforcement” of system integrity/SCMS manager ................................................................. 195 4. “Enforcement” of system integrity/Federal role ....................................................................... 195 D. X. System governance and why it is important ................................................................................. 196 1. Public model ............................................................................................................................. 199 2. Public-private partnership model .............................................................................................. 200 3. Private model ............................................................................................................................ 200 4. Scope of the SCMS system governance.................................................................................... 204 Legal Liability................................................................................................................................... 208 A. Overview ....................................................................................................................................... 208 B. Industry’s liability concerns and solutions.................................................................................... 208 C. Liability concerns specific to the SCMS....................................................................................... 211 D. Federal liability limiting mechanisms ........................................................................................... 211 E. NHTSA’s assessment of industry liability .................................................................................... 212 F. NHTSA’s assessment of SCMS liability ...................................................................................... 213 XI. Preliminary Cost Estim...
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