09-29-06 (11) Cells 2 - Cell Structure Prokaryotic cell vs...

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    Cell Structure: Prokaryotic cell vs. Eukaryotic cell • Size difference • Nucleus • Membrane-bound organelles
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    Prokaryotic Cells • Do not contain a nucleus • Do not contain membrane-bound organelles
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    Prokaryotic Cell
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    Prokaryotic Cell Shape • Spheres (cocci) • Rods (bacilli) • Spirals
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    Prokaryotic Cell Shape 1 μ m 2 μ m 5 μ m (a) Spherical (cocci) (b) Rod-shaped (bacilli) (c) Spiral
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    Prokaryotic Characteristics • Cell surface structures • Motility • Internal and genomic organization • Reproduction • Cell shape
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    Cell Surface Structures • Cell wall • Capsule • Appendages
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    Cell Wall Peptidoglycan layer Cell wall Plasma membrane Protein Gram- positive bacteria 20 μ m Outer membrane Peptidoglycan layer Plasma membrane Cell wall Lipopolysaccharide Protein Gram- negative bacteria
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    Capsule 200 nm Capsule
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    Fimbriae 200 nm Fimbriae
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    Motility • About 50% of prokaryotes are capable of  directional movement • Taxis • Flagella
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    Prokaryotic Flagella Flagellum Filament Hook Cell wall Plasma membrane Basal apparatus 50 nm
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    Internal and Genomic Organization • Lack complex compartmentalization • Specialized membranes – Perform metabolic functions • Genome structure – Much less DNA than eukaryotic genomes – Circular chromosome
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    Specialized Membranes (a) Aerobic prokaryote (b) Photosynthetic prokaryote 0.2 μ m 1 μ m Respiratory membrane Thylakoid membranes
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    Prokaryotic Genome 1 μ m Chromosome
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    Reproduction and Adaptation • Reproduce very quickly • Limited by environmental factors • Endospores
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    Endospores Endospore 0.3 μ m
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    Eukaryotic Cells • True Nucleus • Organelles • Plasma membrane • Cytoplasm • Ribosomes • Two main types – Animal cells – Plant cells
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    Animal Cell
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    Plant Cell
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