09-29-06 (11) Cells (part 2)

09-29-06 (11) Cells (part 2) - Cell Structure Size...

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Cell Structure: Prokaryotic cell vs. Eukaryotic cell Size difference Nucleus Membrane-bound organelles
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Prokaryotic Cells Do not contain a nucleus Do not contain membrane-bound organelles
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Prokaryotic Cell
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Prokaryotic Cell Shape Spheres (cocci) Rods (bacilli) Spirals
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Prokaryotic Cell Shape 1 μ m 2 μ m 5 μ m (a) Spherical (cocci) (b) Rod-shaped (bacilli) (c) Spiral
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Prokaryotic Characteristics Cell surface structures Motility Internal and genomic organization Reproduction Cell shape
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Cell Surface Structures Cell wall Capsule Appendages
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Cell Wall Peptidoglycan layer Cell wall Plasma membrane Protein Gram- positive bacteria 20 μ m Outer membrane Peptidoglycan layer Plasma membrane Cell wall Lipopolysaccharide Protein Gram- negative bacteria
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Capsule 200 nm Capsule
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Fimbriae 200 nm Fimbriae
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Motility About 50% of prokaryotes are capable of directional movement Taxis Flagella
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Prokaryotic Flagella Flagellum Filament Hook Cell wall Plasma membrane Basal apparatus 50 nm
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Internal and Genomic Organization Lack complex compartmentalization Specialized membranes Perform metabolic functions Genome structure Much less DNA than eukaryotic genomes Circular chromosome
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Specialized Membranes (a) Aerobic prokaryote (b) Photosynthetic prokaryote 0.2 μ m 1 μ m Respiratory membrane Thylakoid membranes
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Prokaryotic Genome 1 μ m Chromosome
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Reproduction and Adaptation Reproduce very quickly Limited by environmental factors Endospores
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Endospores Endospore 0.3 μ m
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