10-13-06 (14) Communication

10-13-06 (14) Communication - Cell Communication...

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Cell Communication September 13, 2006
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Cell-to-Cell Communication Intercellular communication Absolutely essential for multicellular organisms Also used by single-celled organisms
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Intercellular Communication Universal mechanisms of cellular regulation Same small set of cell-signaling mechanisms used repeatedly
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Intercellular Communication Universal mechanisms of cellular regulation Signals: Come from other cells or environment Physical signals (light and touch) Chemical signals : how cells communicate, can be ion or molecules Signal Steps : Revieved Processed [?]
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Converting a Signal into a Response α factor Receptor 1 2 3 α factor Type a Type α α α a/ α a a Individual yeast cells S. cerevisiae Identify their mates by cell signaling Haploid comes in 2 diff states: alpha & beta
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Signal Transduction Pathways STP (signal transduction pathways) Convert signals on a cell’s surface into cellular responses Are similar in microbes and mammals, suggesting an early origin
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Intercellular Signaling Cells in a multicellular organism communicate via chemical messengers Direct communication Local signaling Long-distance signaling
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Intercellular Signaling: Direct Contact Animal and plant cells have cell junctions that directly connect the cytoplasm of adjacent cells Plasma membranes Animals and plant cells have cell junctions that directly connect the cytoplasm of adjacent cells
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Intercellular Signaling: Direct Contact Animal cells may also communicate directly via cell surface molecules Animal cells may also communicate directly via cell surface molecules
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Intercellular Signaling: Over a distance Local signaling via local regulators , Local regulator diffuses through extracellular fluid Target cell Secretory vesicle Release of neurotransmitter Neurotransmitter diffuses across synapse Target cell is stimulated Local signaling Paracrine Signaling Synaptic Signaling
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Intercellular Signaling: Over a distance Long-distance signaling Endocrine signaling Both plants and animals use hormones Hormone travels in bloodstream to target cells Blood vessel Target cell Endocrine cell
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