10-23-06 (16) Respiration

10-23-06 (16) Respiration - Cellular Respiration Life is...

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Cellular Respiration October 23, 2006
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Life is Work Living cells require energy from outside sources to perform their many tasks
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Energy Flow and Chemical Recycling Energy flows into an ecosystem as sunlight and leaves as heat Chemical elements are recycled Light energy ECOSYSTEM CO 2 + H 2 O Photosynthesis in chloroplasts Cellular respiration in mitochondria Organic molecules + O 2 ATP powers most cellular work Heat energ y Figure 9.2
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Catabolic Pathways Release stored energy by breaking down complex molecules to simpler products Fermentation making energy without oxygen; partial dehydration of sugars without energy Cellular respiration Breakdown of sugars with help of oxygen Most efficient catabolic pathway
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Catabolic Pathways Cellular respiration C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6 O 2 6 CO 2 +6 H 2 0 +Energy G = -686 kcal/mol
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Catabolic Pathways Yield energy by oxidizing organic fuels Based on the transfer of electrons during chemical reactions This energy then used to synthesize ATP
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Redox Reactions: Oxidation and Reduction Electron transfers from one reactant to another are oxidation-reduction reactions Oxidation Reduction
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Redox Na + Cl Na + + Cl becomes oxidized (loses electron) becomes reduced (gains electron) X e - + Y X + Y e - becomes oxidized (loses electron) becomes reduced (gains electron)
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Redox Some redox reactions do not completely exchange electrons Change the degree of electron sharing in covalent bonds
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Redox CH 4 H H H H C O O O O O C H H Methane (reducing agent) Oxygen (oxidizing agent) Carbon dioxide Water + 2O 2 CO 2 + Energy + 2 H 2 O becomes oxidized becomes reduced Reactants Products Figure 9.3
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Oxidation of Organic Fuel Molecules During cellular respiration glucose is oxidized and oxygen is reduced C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O + Energy becomes oxidized becomes reduced
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Stepwise Energy Harvesting Cellular respiration oxidizes glucose in a series of steps NAD + Electron transport chain
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NAD + NAD + H O O O O O O O O O O P P CH 2 CH 2 HO OH H H HO OH HO H H N + C NH 2 H N H NH 2 N N Nicotinamide (oxidized form) NH 2 + 2[H] (from food) Dehydrogenase Reduction of NAD + Oxidation of NADH 2 e + 2 H + 2 e + H + NADH O H H N C + Nicotinamide (reduced form) N Figure 9.4
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NADH The reduced form of NAD + Represents stored energy that can be tapped to make ATP when electrons fall down to oxygen Passes electrons to the electron transport chain
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Electron Transport Chain If electron transfer is not stepwise a large release of energy occurs Reaction of hydrogen and oxygen to form water Free energy, G H 2 O Explosive release of heat and light energy Figure 9.5 A H 2 + 1 / 2 O 2
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Electron Transport Chain Passes electrons in a series of steps instead of in one explosive reaction Uses the energy from the electron transfer to form ATP
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Electron Transport Chain 2 H 1 / 2 O 2 (from food via NADH) 2 H + + 2 e 2 H + 2 e H 2 O 1 / 2 O 2 Controlled release of energy for synthesis of ATP ATP ATP ATP Electron transport chain Free energy, G +
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