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86 MICROENCAPSULATION TECHNOLOGY: A REVIEW A. POSHADRI and APARNA KUNA Nutriplus, International Crops Research Institute for Semi-Arid Tropics, Hyderabad Post Graduate & Research Centre, ANGR Agricultural University, Hyderabad J.Res. ANGRAU 38(1)86-102, 2010 ABSTRACT The development of new functional foods requires technologies for incorporating health promoting ingredients into food without reducing their bioavailability or functionality. In many cases, microencapsulation can provide the necessary protection for these compounds. Microcapsules offer food processors a means to protect sensitive food components, ensure protection against nutritional loss, utilize sensitive ingredients, incorporate unusual or time-release mechanisms into the formulation, mask or preserve flavors/aromas and transform liquids into easy to handle solid ingredients. Various techniques cab be employed to form microcapsules, including spray drying, spray chilling or spray cooling, extrusion coating, fluidized-bed coating, liposomal entrapment, lyophilization, coacervation, centrifugal suspension separation, cocrystallization and inclusion complexation. This article describes the recent and advanced techniques of microencapsulation. Controlled release of food ingredients at the right place and the right time is a key functionality that can be provided by microencapsulation. Timely and targeted release improves the effectiveness of food additives, broadens the application range of food ingredients, and ensures optimal dosage, thereby improving the cost effectiveness for the food manufacturer. E-mail ID: [email protected] Currently, there is a trend towards a healthier way of living, which includes a growing awareness by consumers of what they eat and what benefits certain ingredients have in maintaining good health. Preventing illness through diet is a unique opportunity to use innovative functional foods (Hilliam, 1996 and Sheehy and Morrissey, 1998). Microencapsulated products often present new challenges to food product developers. Existing ingredients that are incorporated into food systems slowly degrade and lose their activity, or become hazardous, by propagating a chain of oxidation reactions. Ingredients also react with components present in the food system, which may limit bioavailability, or change the colour and taste of the product. In many cases, microencapsulation can be used to overcome
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