final question 2 - GreetingLine Question 2 Reader Daniel...

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Nathan Mihalovich Reader: Daniel Laurison—Group 2 1 Question 2 William J. Wilson identifies problems with the urban black communities in connection with economic policy, but also social isolation and the concentration effects; he relates their history of hardships to slavery and urbanization, overcrowding forcing higher rates of unemployment and racism causing the constant struggle for jobs. Wilson also identifies the extreme reliance of impoverished people on the government, forcing greater rates of marital separation and poverty. The high concentration of people in ghettos causes high crime rates, resulting in the diversion of adolescents away from the skilled labor force and higher rates of joblessness as well as prejudice. Finally, social isolation, or the separation from successful jobs and a network of connected individuals, and concentration effects, the centralization of a collective group of like individuals who prohibit social advancement, attribute to the failures and struggles of many blacks. The beginnings of black suffrage relate back to slavery in America; forced to urban centers to survive economically, blacks experienced high levels of unemployment, which carried on through time and now cause social isolation and concentration effects. Wilson explains that after the Civil War, “blacks were trapped in the most deteriorated or run-down residential sections not only because of poverty but also because of a stringent pattern of housing discrimination” (Wilson 124, reader 490). Thus begins Wilson’s reasoning for social isolation and concentration effects. Because blacks were concentrated in small areas together, they were isolated from the greater possibilities of jobs as a result of living in an all black environment, and would not think of higher job attainment because of segregation. Many blacks remained in racially similar communities out of necessity, but also because of the desire to remain with similar people, effectively causing concentration effects and social isolation from the greater American society.
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Nathan Mihalovich
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