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Unit 3 NotesRings, Moons, and Pluto●Jupiter has 4 big moons that orbit in the same direction as the planet●Saturn has 1 big moon named Titan is the only moon that has an atmosphere●The Galilean Satellites○Jupiter’s 4 big moons○The innermost one is very yellow → it’s the most volancially active body in the solarsystem■The yellow comes from sulfur compounds○The outermost moons are more icy●Jupiter’s moon IO○Colors are caused by sulfur and its compounds○The dark spots are volcanoes■The volcanoes are active today → their lava is rich in sulfur and sulfurcompounds■Superhot volcanoes●Jupiter’s moon Europa○Entirely covered in water ice○The ice layer is several kilometers thick○Has salt water ocean below its ice surface■The layer of salt water (not ice) is inferred and magnetic properties of Europa■As free-flowing water is a requirement for life, it has been suggested that lifemight exist on Europa○Tidal heating■The tidal bulges squeezes the moon into a small shape → tidally locking themoon into synchronization●The moons are on eccentric orbits due to the large gravitational pull ofthe other moons■Varying distortion causes friction inside the moons●The friction heats the moons●IO is heated the most because it has the shortest orbital period and isclosest to Jupiter●IO is heated so much that it has continuous volcanic activity○It’s surface is replaced every few million years. It has becomeeven more differentiated than the earth, and sulfur has floated toits surface
●Pluto○Found in the Kuiper Belt○Surface consists of nitrogen ice mixed with methane ice → water ice is included in this○Pluto’s surface is not old → most likely, the ice moves around and creates impact craters○Pluto goes inside Neptune’s orbit but will never hit it → they are in an orbital resonancethat protects them from ever hitting each other■Pluto then swings back out (much further from the sun) and the gas freezes,getting rid of the atmosphere○