Ling55AC Notes - Linguistics 55AC History of English...

Info icon This preview shows pages 1–5. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Linguistics 55AC 17/10/2007 17:32:00 10/3/07 History of English The Germanic Language Family English is a Germanic language from the West-Germanic Branch o Proto-Germanic -> West Germanic -> Anglo-Frisian -> English Indo-European Language Tree Proto-European -> Germanic -> West Germanic -> Low German -> English Function word- ‘grammar words’, articles English – History of English, a “hybrid language” The first documented language in Britain was a Celtic language The Celts 400 B.C.E. Meanwhile, the Roman Empire was expanding Romans in Britain 55 B.C.E. Julius Caesar -> Britain, brought back news of the people and their  language 114-220 C.E. Rome sent garrisons to Britain Romans lived in military camps Roman subjects still remaining in Britain until 476 C.E.  Germanic groups set sail across the North Sea from Denmark and Saxony  Germany (part of m.d. Germany) starting around CE 449.  Anglo-Saxons in Britain Romans leaving Britain left power void, quickly filled by Anglo-Saxons They were Germanic speaking groups that came from continental Europe From 5 th -8 th  centuries, waves of Angles & Saxons came to England, pushing  Celtic speaking peoples to the periphery Removal of Celts resulted in Germanic speaking England Norse Invasion began around 800-900 CE
Image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
The Danelaw (Northeastern England) Viking jurisdiction in Britain beginning around 800-900 CE Loanwords into English from Old Norse Anger, blight, by-law, cake, all, clumsy, doze, egg, fellow, gear, get, give,  hale, hi, husband, kick, kill, kilt, kindle, law, low, lump, rag, raise, root, scathe,  scorch, score, scowl, scrape, scrub, seat, skill, skin, skirt, sky, sly, take, they,  them, their, thrall thrust, ugly, want, window, wing Place-name suffixes: -by, -thorpe, -gate Doublets : no/nay, shirt/skirt, to/till, rear/raise o Historically come from the same source Overview of English Language Periods Old English (<~11—CE) o Anglo-Saxon -> Britain in 5 th  century o Norse Invasion 800-900 CE o Work of literature:  Beowulf Middle English (1100-1500 CE) o Norman invasion 1066 o Work of literature:  The Centerbury Tales  by Chaucer Modern English (1500>CE) o Renaissance o Work of literature: Plays, sonnets, of Shakespeare Although the Romans were no longer in power after Britain became Germanic- speaking, some Latin loanwords nonetheless entered during the Old English period –  e.g.:
Image of page 2
Apostol ‘apostel’ (apostolus < Greek apostolos) Casere ‘caesar, emperor’ Ceaster ‘city’ (castra ‘camp’) Cest ‘chest’ (cista ‘box’) Circul ‘circle’ Cometa ‘comet’ (cometa < Greek) Maegester ‘master’ (magister) Martir ‘martyr’ Paper ‘paper’ (papyrus, from Greek)
Image of page 3

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Tigle ‘tile’ (tegula)
Image of page 4
Image of page 5
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern