Ling55AC Notes

Ling55AC Notes - Linguistics 55AC 17:32:00 ← ← ←...

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Unformatted text preview: Linguistics 55AC 17/10/2007 17:32:00 ← 10/3/07 ← ← History of English ← The Germanic Language Family • English is a Germanic language from the West-Germanic Branch o Proto-Germanic -> West Germanic -> Anglo-Frisian -> English ← Indo-European Language Tree • Proto-European -> Germanic -> West Germanic -> Low German -> English ← Function word- ‘grammar words’, articles ← ← English – History of English, a “hybrid language” ← The first documented language in Britain was a Celtic language ← The Celts 400 B.C.E. ← Meanwhile, the Roman Empire was expanding ← Romans in Britain • 55 B.C.E. Julius Caesar -> Britain, brought back news of the people and their language • 114-220 C.E. Rome sent garrisons to Britain • Romans lived in military camps • Roman subjects still remaining in Britain until 476 C.E. ← Germanic groups set sail across the North Sea from Denmark and Saxony Germany (part of m.d. Germany) starting around CE 449. ← Anglo-Saxons in Britain • Romans leaving Britain left power void, quickly filled by Anglo-Saxons • They were Germanic speaking groups that came from continental Europe • From 5 th-8 th centuries, waves of Angles & Saxons came to England, pushing Celtic speaking peoples to the periphery • Removal of Celts resulted in Germanic speaking England ← Norse Invasion began around 800-900 CE ← The Danelaw (Northeastern England) • Viking jurisdiction in Britain beginning around 800-900 CE ← Loanwords into English from Old Norse • Anger, blight, by-law, cake, all, clumsy, doze, egg, fellow, gear, get, give, hale, hi, husband, kick, kill, kilt, kindle, law, low, lump, rag, raise, root, scathe, scorch, score, scowl, scrape, scrub, seat, skill, skin, skirt, sky, sly, take, they, them, their, thrall thrust, ugly, want, window, wing • Place-name suffixes: -by, -thorpe, -gate • Doublets : no/nay, shirt/skirt, to/till, rear/raise o Historically come from the same source ← Overview of English Language Periods • Old English (<~11—CE) o Anglo-Saxon -> Britain in 5 th century o Norse Invasion 800-900 CE o Work of literature: Beowulf • Middle English (1100-1500 CE) o Norman invasion 1066 o Work of literature: The Centerbury Tales by Chaucer • Modern English (1500>CE) o Renaissance o Work of literature: Plays, sonnets, of Shakespeare ← Although the Romans were no longer in power after Britain became Germanic- speaking, some Latin loanwords nonetheless entered during the Old English period – e.g.: Apostol ‘apostel’ (apostolus < Greek apostolos) Casere ‘caesar, emperor’ Ceaster ‘city’ (castra ‘camp’) Cest ‘chest’ (cista ‘box’) Circul ‘circle’...
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Ling55AC Notes - Linguistics 55AC 17:32:00 ← ← ←...

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