HIS-131 Unit 3 Study Guide Ch. 5 (2) .docx - HIS-131 American History 1 Study Guide Unit 3 Ch 5 Hessians German mercenaries professional German soldiers

HIS-131 Unit 3 Study Guide Ch. 5 (2) .docx - HIS-131...

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HIS-131 American History 1 Study Guide Unit 3 Ch. 5 Hessians- German mercenaries, professional German soldiers that fought for the British in the American Revolutionary War Militia - A force of armed civilians pledged to defend their community during the American Revolution. Community, possibly state based, but not paid or on a national level. Citizen Soldiers – part time nonprofessional soldiers, mostly poor farmers or recent immigrants who had been indentured servants, who played an important role in the Revolutionary War. Continental Army – created from scratch with little money. In the beginning, there were no uniforms, scarce weapons, and the soldiers were untrained. A professional army with full times soldiers enlisted from all thirteen colonies. They thought of themselves as fighting for a new nation, not just protecting their communities. Strictly enforced army rules to keep the soldiers in shape. The American Crisis – A rousing pamphlet by Thomas Paine that encouraged the Patriots to continue to fight after their early on hard losses. He originally published the pamphlet anonymously because he was an Englishman and the British viewed the contents of the pamphlet as treason. Battle of Trenton - The battle was fought on the morning of December 26, 1776. The Battle of Trenton was won by the American forces. The battle pitted approximately 2,400 soldiers of the Continental Army, commanded by George Washington, up against about 1,400 Hessian soldiers commanded by Colonel Johann Rall. George Washington and his army snuck up on the British and attacked them on the day after Christmas. This is the battle where the army crossed the Delaware, this is depicted in the famous painting with Washington standing at the front of the rowboat leading his army. Battles of Saratoga – Decisive defeat of almost 6,000 British troops under General John Burgoyne in several battles near Saratoga, New York, in October 1777; the American victory helped convince France to enter the war on the side of the Patriots Alliance with France – critical diplomatic, military, and economic alliance between France and the newly independent United States, codified by the Treaty of Amity and the Commerce and the Treaty of Alliance (1778) Treaty of Amity and Commerce – a treaty where France officially recognized the new United States and offered trade concessions, including important privileges to American shipping.
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