HIS-131 Unit 4 Ch. 7 Study Guide (2).docx - HIS-131 American History 1 Study Guide Unit 4 Ch 7 Jeffersonian Republicans the political philosophy adopted

HIS-131 Unit 4 Ch. 7 Study Guide (2).docx - HIS-131...

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HIS-131 American History 1 Study Guide Unit 4 Ch. 7 Jeffersonian Republicans: the political philosophy adopted by the Republican Party during the early 1800s that called for a limited national government and reduced federal spending. This policy was initially put into practice by President Thomas Jefferson when he assumed office in 1801. Federalists: The Federalists were instrumental in 1787 in shaping the new US Constitution, which strengthened the national government at the expense, according to the Antifederalists, of the states and the people. Republican Simplicity: Jefferson's commitment to Republican simplicity was matched by his stress on economy in government. He slashed army and navy expenditures, cut the budget, eliminated taxes on whiskey, houses, and slaves, and fired all federal tax collectors. Monocrat: one who governs alone Democratization: the transition to a more democratic political regime, including substantive political changes moving in a democratic direction. Judiciary Act of 1801: reduced the size of the Supreme Court from six justices to five and eliminated the justices' circuit duties. To replace the justices on circuit, the act created sixteen judgeships for six judicial circuits. Marbury v. Madison: a U.S. Supreme Court case that established the principle of judicial review in the United States, meaning that American courts have the power to strike down laws, statutes, and some government actions that violate the Constitution of the United States. Midnight Judges: the judicial appointments made by President John Adams just before he was succeeded by President Thomas Jefferson. Adams saw the appointments as a way to preserve Federalist influence in the federal government during the Jeffersonian tenure. Judicial Review: declare that laws and actions of local, state, or national government are invalid if they conflict with the Constitution. It also gives courts the power to declare an action of the executive or legislative branch to be unconstitutional. Louisiana Purchase: t he acquisition of the territory of Louisiana by the United States from France in 1803. In return for fifteen million dollars, or approximately eighteen dollars per square mile, the United States nominally acquired a total of 828,000 sq mi.
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