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Unformatted text preview: “(a EN‘I‘A 935% HA ymuasefit‘m‘efl 2008 3-D ORGANIZATION ANO TONAL PERSPECTIVE BEARINGS _-—-—._..._____._.____________ During the next two weeks we will focus on the study of space. its definition and its formal and structural properties. Space is one of the primary concerns of environmental designers. Three dimensional space is inevitably created by arranging objects. and it can be characterized in three ways: abstract. concrete. interpretive. Abstract space is characterized by the geoeetrical relationships among the space forming elements and their orientations. Concrete space is the practical. topological space formed by the functional relationships of elenents eithin it. Interpretive space is characterized by the leaning of the components and their significance to the beholder as a whole. He will concentrate on the first aspect. abstract space. He will take a sculptural view -- functional considerations will not be involved. The history of architecture has mostly been written as a history and typology of corporeal fore and little attention has been given to the spatial form. to the form of.the volume resulting from the organization of space forming elements. The study'of space should include attention to the relationship between easses and void. easses and lesses. solids and planes. etc. - Hithin the previous blocks we have been exploring pictorial space in two ways: that of creating the representation of a three-dimension- al space on a flat surface. He have learned that every Iart ue' place on a sheet of paper activates the whole page and creates a field of visual forces. Pictorial space has dynamic. as sell as graphic. properties. He shall now discover that the same holds for three-dimensional spaces as well. and that many of the principles of pictorial investigation may be applied to sculptural investigation as well. He have to consider the sane forces of interaction among the shapes.and the masses. but on a acre complex level since the ‘ work can be viewed from 360 degrees. Keep in hind such basic principles as figure-ground relations. positive-negative space. contrast in scale. focus. symmetrical-asycnetrical axes. etc. Renenber that there is a highly charged relation between space and its boundaries. Spece is articulated form -- the form of enclosed volume as well as the form of the elements which demarcate and enclose the space. You Hill be given certain dimensional and design constraints within which to create a sculptural object. You will want to be attentive to the variety of the parts while providing a sense of unity within the cocposition of the whole. Three kinds of elements will be included in this sculptural design: linear. planar. and volumetric ilines. planes. volumes]. Use these three elements to maximize contrasts and establish relations within the object. Your composition ought to have several different levels of scale. that is. there should be contrast between large and small elcnents. heavy and light. thick and thin. direction. line to plane. etc. The composition of your FOP" Should have a focus as well as an apparent ordering of masses. volume. and structure. For example: 1b s B“. Heterials: - from lar - f - Iaintaining or - counterpoint There should be no tonal or elenents of he painted unite to completely enchasize the to laterials a Dimensions: ge to small spaces rom minimum to maximum enclosure ientation eaes textural differences among the various your composition. In an additional s tea the node! will Finally. you will be asked to do some line drawings end tone drawings to study the object from different points of view of further enphasiting the relation bet-e en tIo-dinensional e-dieensional for: Parameters The dimensions of the who]! should not exceed 13' x 18' he form should 325 have a base; it shou ld stand on its own. nges and Number of Elenents: Three kinds of elements should be no ude : - Inear e ements. of 3 volumetric trapezoidal. but forms or forms that a structural relatio conposition of the 3-5 planar elements elements. Keep to cubic forms. avoid curvilinear forms. are merely decorative. nship to each other and uncle. Hhite glue Ialsa Hood . and a eininun diagonal or Also avoid overiy complex The elements should have contribute to the Straight pins for trial assembly Lamp for lighting node] in studio ED 11A: 3-D Organization and Tonal Perspective Drawing Some suggestions forapproach in__y_our discussions: :> What is the structural relationship of the parts—do they contribute to the composition of the whole? (Linear, Planar. Volumetric) :> How is a theme explored? a Choreography of the parts: If this were a musical composition, what does it sound like? :> Transitions—Craft, eccentric changes. hybrids => Is it beautiful? In what way? =:> How does it meet the ground? In relation to the rest of the piece? :> Is the drawing clear in its parts? The concept of the drawing is to create an understood physicality from having first built the object. Wed kn», qr Sufi, Slides Rn . Fin”; ‘ I r . .993 an a; E B | IIIIJIII Ilulll| :5 em 32” $995 Em mom 52:3 2. .o .-.r SEEK 9.35% oz. ‘3 5355: show ._Eo.i:o§ E. 2.. 55253 8:89 RES .8285 :6 n E... .333 32... _o 3: "3. E3300 .3 on? 2.: 3 3:6: 3 2 89.. 9.3268 0 Wasarly Ermilov. Composition 1’}. 1923 Wood. Dfllnl. V.lll"$H .I.’\U press, 32 It I? x 3". Russian Constructivism Russian Constructivism or "Productivism" as it is sometimes called to distinguish it from Suprematism and other European Constructivist styles was the antithesis of the "pure" art theories promulgated by Maievich and Gabo in Fiussia and Mondrian in Holland. Russian Constructivism was led by a small. close-knit group of artists, principally Vladimir Tatlin and Alexander Hodchenko, whose notion of the artist- engineer coincided with the almost religiOus fervor with which science and technology were viewed in Russia. The term "constructivisrn" was first used by Rodchenko to describe the new artist who would be. in a sense. a “constructive” lorce in activer re—designing the socio-economic structure of post— RevolutionaryI Flussia as opposed to the contemplative and spiritual role assigned to art. for instance. by Malevich The utilitarian and pragmatic concerns of these artists led to ex- periments in poster and brochure lay-out design and even- tually to collaboration with workers in industrial design for clothing. utensils. furniture and factories. ’heo van Doesburg. Simultaneous (hunter-Composition. 1929. Oil on canvas. 195-: at 19%” de Still De Still (“the Style") is the Dutch version of Constructivism led by Piet Mondrian and Theo van Doesburg which attempted to synthesize architecture. painting. sculpture and interior decoration into. "an esthetic harmonization of the whole material environment." Be Still further stressed that in- dividuality should be suppressed in favor of general principles :ie. geometric structure: commen to all art works. swam s’mfiéfiflgWstxm ' swam ' 'VmTw-t==‘-ss-7'-="--= Did Constructivism manifest itself beyond painting and sculpture? Since the goals of Constructivism. especiasy as exemplifiec by the Bauhaus in Germany. Included the ultimate syntheSIs of art and life, Constructivist princ-oles were applied to architecture. interior decoration, furniture design. stained giass. typography and lay-out and art exhibition design. Constructivism was also the has-s for much experimental photography. film and even dance and theater set design. Constructivist influence is evident today. even if in diluted and often distorted forms. in popular architecture. entertainment and industrial design, For instance. the photo-montage effects developed by Russian filmmaker. Sergei Eisenstein. in the early 19205 can be seen in many television corri- mercials and Hollywood films. Why is geometry so important to Constructivist art? Geometry and mathematics provided the model for an abstract. pure and rational approach to art that would be freed of individualistic expression and subiective. often private. Interpretation and result in a more generally com- prehensible art of order and logic obeying universal laws un— derstood at once by everyone. Behind these general aims stood the belief that the rational basis of geometry and mathematics combined with the creative impetus of art could also become models for socio‘economic reform and other utilitarian problems. in 1925 there appeared a statement by two leaders of Constructivism. Jean Arp and La'szlo‘ Moholy- Nagy. summarizing the essence of the Constructivist ap- proach: "These artists see the world through the prism of technology. They do not want to create illusions with paints or canvas but do their work directly in iron. wood and glass. Short-sighted observers see only the machine in this procedUre. Constructivism proves that the boundary between mathematics and art. between a work of art and technical in- ventions cannot be detected'” 1. Jun Alp end Ln'uié Mohaiyvfleqy. "or. Kunsi—ismcn. 192i-19Te," quoted by Willyr Flotzier In Constructive Concepts tZurlch: ABC Editions. 19m. 9. BB. :éwmmamach“;armiiaimfié'iaxifigfio:é'isliéiiz‘w' " - I " . n it“ wan Klrunltov [Klimt]. supremerrsr Comoosrrion. t920. Goueche and water- color on cardboard. 1.1"..r10‘1“ Suprematism The immediate precursor of Russian Constructivism. Suprematismges defined by its inventor. Kesimir Malevich, held that. "the new art has given priority to the principle that art can have no other content than itself." Although Malevich's paintings eppeer disciplined and rational his goal was "the totality of non-oblective. natural excitations withOui any goal a} purpose" — an anti-rational and essentially mystical approach at odds with the pregmeticaily oriented thrust of Russian Constructivism as It emerged under Rodchenko. Tatlin. Stepanova and others. '.Lst.¥maasvaiwgg,§., x.-.._-;:;;,-_;a;-1-: mwfixagga Laszié Moholy-Nagy. Yellow Circle. 1921. Oil wash on canvas. 53% x 45%". Bauhaus Located in Germany. the Bauhaus 5er..;d literally and figuratively as a central clearing house for Constructivist ar‘ tists and ideas between 1919. when it opened in Weimar. and 1933. when it was closed in Deseau by the Nazis. Never an art school in the traditional sense. the Bauhaus ("Building House") was conceived as a modern equivalent to the medieval cathedral building system where artistrorattsmen contributed to an overall esthetic utility of design. Workshops and departments at the Bauhaus investigated problems in painting. sculpture. architecture. interior decoration. film. photography and. in a direct if unintentional reference to its medieval model. a workshop in stained glass taught by Josef Albers. Artists associated with the Bauhaus included nearly every malor tlgure ot the Constructivist movement: Walter Groplus and Ludwig Mies van der Rohe. who at ditterent times directed the Bauhaus. and teachers including Wessin Kandinsky. El Llssltzky. Laszlo Moholy-Nagy among others. 10 Abshacfion-Créaflon ParISian-oaseo group founded in 1931. Abstraction- .'_T.'-,\.’.'i'on shared many points of contact with as Still. as socially the ideal of integrating all the arts. Abstraction— .‘reatinn was also a magazine edited by group members in- ..-.:inq Jean Arp. Jean Helion. Auguste Heroin. Georges ..ii‘.!t"i'i:_]|ér|00 and Antoine Pevsner. The magazine was imong me most important vehicles tor the dissemination o! -'T-thstructivist theories throughout Europe and the North ant: south American continents. Plat Mondrian. Composition with Yellow“, 1938. Oil and charcoar on canvas. 24 a: 19%”. Neo-Plestlclsm A movement with really only one member. Piet Mondrian, its inventor and theoreticlen. Neo-Plasticism nevertheless ex— erted tremendous Influence on European Constructivism in general. Ultimately derived from certain idees borrowed from Theosophy. Mondrian believed that content or Illustrative sub- ject matter should be replaced by "the representation of relationships:" that the right angle is the most balanced (therefore beautllull relationship; that the interaction of horizontals and verticals would lead to visual equilibrium with equilibrium at the lulcrurn toward which strives all art and lite. 12 Ma: Hill. Hair Sphere Around Two Axis, 1968: Marnie Ilt'. x IO'a” Concrete Art In 19:30 Theo van Doeshurg published his "Manifesto oi Concrete Art" in which he explored Hegel's notion that art is a concretizatlon of abstract thought. concrete being defined as the opposite of abstract. This idea was later taken up and extended by a group of artists working in Switzerland led by Max Bill. Bill himseli ls a kind of living example at the Constructivist Gees kunstwerk ("total art work") whoee simultaneous car Include painter. sculptor. architect. engineer. politician. and exhibition. photo and layout designer: he has experimented with Jewelry making and other crafts as wait. The Concrete artists. each in their Individual styles. often make use of mathematical concepts and prin- ciples. arriving at "concrete" visualizations 01' abstract theory. Constructivism and the Geometric Tradition Selections from the McCrory Corporation Collection Albright-Knox Art Gallery, Buffalo. New York October 14 - November 25. 1979 Dallas Museum of Fine Arts, Dallas. Texas January 16 - February 24. 1980 San Francisco Museum of Modern Art. San Francisco. California March 14 - April 27. 1980 La Jolia Museum of Contemporary Art. La Jolla. California May 23 - July 8.1980 Seattle Art Museum. Seattle. Washington July 30 - September 14. 1980 Museum of Art, Carnegie institute. Pittsburgh. Pennsylvania October 30. 1980 — January 4. 1981 William Rockhiil Nelson Gallery and Atkins Museum of Fine Arts, Kansas City. Missouri January 23 - March 15, 1981 The Detroit institute of Arts. Detroit. Michigan April 22 ~ June1. 1981 Milwaukee Art Center. Milwaukee. Wisconsin July 14 - August 26. 1981 Prepared by Christopher B. Crosman and Steven A. Nash Copyright 1979 The Buffalo Fine Arts Academy Library of Congress Catalogue Card Number: 79-90973 ISBN 0-914782-31-2 All works reproduced in this brochure are in the collection of the McCrory Corporation. New York. Photos by Peter T. Muscato What is Constructivism? Constructivism is the term used to identify one of the major stylistic trends of twentieth century art. As the name implies, Constructivism was an attempt to “construct” a totally new art without reference to painting and sculpture of the past or to observed reality in the world of natural appearances Beginning with the basic elements of art —— color. shape. space — the goal was to build a new reality which is the art object itself, while also exploring the many possible in- terrelationships of basic. pure. geometric form. For example. since the Renaissance. art was held to function as a window on the world. a way of describing something in the observed universe within the window frame; a constructivist work of art is a window in the world. itself an object among the universe of objects, within. outside and including the window frame. Censtructivist art describes only itself. it therefore functions as pure visual creation, but may also possess certain sym- bolic or associative values. such as reminders of mechanized power or references to natural laws of harmony and balance or even homages to science. What are the origins of Constructivism? Geometric abstraction is. of course. nothing new in the history of art. it can be seen in Stone Age rock paintings, in pro-Classical Greek vases. in Roman mosaics. in Zuni baskets. in Mosiem architectural ornament'and in countless other places and periods. However. Constructivism differs radically from these earlier examples in that it is the culmina~ tion of revolutionary attitudes stemming from the late nineteenth century and the example of such artists as Paul Cézanne and Georges Seurat: i.e. the idea that art must emphasize those characteristics intrinsic to itself —— color. shape. surface. texture. etc. —— as opposed to merely im— itating or describing something else. Specifically, Construc- tivism is an off-shoot of the immediately preceding break- throughs of Picasso. Braque and pre-World War l Cubism. Both Cubism and Constructivism are based upon a geometric reduction of form. emphasis on structure. and severe, tightly controlled compositional devices. Cubism. though. always adheres to a model — the human figure. a tabletop arrange~ ment of everyday objects. guitars. etc. —- whereas Construc~ tivism begins with the circles. squares and rectangles that the Cubist still life arrives at. and takes the relationships between these fundamental design elements as its content. ls Constructivism identified with any one country or period? Constructivism sprang up independently and almost simultaneously in Russia and the Netherlands during and shortly after World War l. in Russ:a. Constructivism (or Suprematism. as Kasimir Malewch proclaimed the new art) paralleled the political revolution and the overthrow of the Czar: the rejection of the past. including past at: the effort to build a totally new social and economic structure; and the emphasis on science and technology all served to simulate an already innovative and experimentally minded Russian ar‘ tistic avant-garde. Similarly, artists in Holland. led by Pier Mondrian and Theo van Doesburg. were attempting to create a new, universal language of art. This idealistic. essentially utopian, stance was an effort on the part of artists in both Holland and Russia to integrate art into all aspects of life and included Mondrian’s view that man could be raised to a higher spiritual level through an art based on harmonious relationships. Beginning in the 19205 and continuing through the 19305 Constructivism spread throughout Europe. Never a completely cohesive movement, artists after World War i found ease of mobility and an inclination to publish and dis- seminate ideas through numerous periodicals and manifestos which. combined with other factors, led to the establishment of Constructivism as a truly international style. Maior Constructivist activity between the Wars was to be found in France. Germany. England, Switzerland, Poland and Hungary. The Constructivist esthetlc. if not the movement itself, continues to be a strong and vital tendency in Europe and. following World War ll, in the United States. Currently such artists as Victor Vasarely. Bridget Riley, Frank Stella. George Rickey and Kenneth Snelson. among many others, have roots in the Constructivist tradition of early twentieth century art. How does Constructivism reflect general tendencies of European thought between the Wars? Following World War l two divergent world views (which in truth have been with man since the beginnings of civilization began to take on an urgency hitherto unknown: first, that mankind was illogical. irrational. sell-destructive and im- perieclible; second. that in the aftermath of the bloody can rage of war lay the opportunity to rebuild entirely, that order and reason must prevail as a means to a more perfect world in a sense. this was the terribilita and passion of Freud's un~ consctous mind pitted against the purity and intellect of Einstein‘s E=MC’. in art Constructivism found its counter~ current in the anarchistic. anti-art style known as Dada and i the self-obsessed. anti—rational tenets of Surrealism. This polarization in art styles of the period generally reflects in- dividual attitudes where technology and science were viewer at once with hope and dread. What are some of the principal design elements of Constructivism? in painting. Constructivism is usually characterized by geometric forms, sharp lines and angles. pure unmodulated color areas. and often repetitive distribution of elements into flat patterns. Sculpture, in addition to certain of the foreman- tioned elements, often investigates problems of time and mo- tion {kinetic art) and especially the interdependence of solid and void. mass and space. Both art forms characteristically utilize the overlapping or iuxtapositloning of planes to create space. and diagonals and the tension of weight and counterweight to build balance or dynamism. Constructivist art often makes use of industrial materials such as glass. steel and plastics and industrial fabrication techniques as par of its creed of rationality and order. it stresses lmpersonality of process rather than the individuality of an artist‘s “handwriting.” Sometimes mathematical concepts of se- quence. progression and proportion come into play. WWJfi-§Z’;AVwhl‘fizi-itwwwwtéefié ‘ .5 _ > 2 _. ‘ ...
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