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European Expansion in the Atlantic and Indian Oceans❖Geographic discovery is more scientific concern. ➢For the sake of knowledge. Going beyond the limits of the known. ❖Expansion implies something more aggressive. ➢Implies colonization ➢And finally, exploitation. Causes and Context of European Expansion: ❖Ottoman expansion challenges old balances, systems and routes of exchange. ❖A new access to South and East Asia is sought. ➢Bypassing the Ottoman Empire. ➢Silk road was problematic, because Asian states were no longer united under the Mongols. ❖The Venetians even plan in the XV century the digging of the Suez Canal. ➢Doesn’t work. Too ambitious.❖The Portuguese, present in the North Africa (Ceuta) since 1415, attempt to circumnavigate Africa ➢Vasco da Gama (1486) accomplished this. ➢Allowed for the first time to reach India without passing through Ottoman Empire. ❖Going west to find the east. ➢Columbus conceives his plan of reaching the East by navigating westward. ❖Europe more self-confident and aggressive. ➢Recovering from the Black Death, “saturated” continent: the most densely populated and the most urbanized area in the world, 130.000 towns. ➢The Renaissance is one aspect of this self-confidence. ❖Spain has united the Kingdoms of Castilla and Aragon and began expelling non-Christian subjects. ➢Charles V becomes in 1519 ruler of Catholic empire that comprises Spain, German lands, America and Asian colonies. ❖China has abandoned initial enterprises in long distance trade ➢Absence of competition. Vasco de Gama:❖Portuguese seaman and navigator. ❖Circumnavigates Africa and goes to India. ➢India becomes a Portuguese colony. ❖Indian Ocean was rich geographical region. ➢Full of exchanges and trade ➢Between especially its Muslim side, west, and its Hindu side, east. ➢Lots of exchanges between Muslims and Jewish merchants. ❖Continued by the violent intrusion of the Portuguese, who arrived with war ships. ➢Indian Ocean was not ready to face such a challenge. ❖The Portuguese engaged in an interesting kind of cultural exchange. ➢Hindu architecture with Christian elements in Portugal. ➢And Portuguese architecture in India. Christopher Columbus:❖4 voyages, 1492-1502. ❖The idea of finding the east by going the west. ❖Landed the Central America without being conscious. ❖In 1519, the first ship carrying treasuries from the new world reaches Spain. ➢Exploitation begins. ❖Three major civilization, that preexisted in Americas ➢Aztec ➢Mayas ➢Incas Magellan❖The idea of circumnavigating the new continent to reach the east. ❖Circumnavigation of the Earth ➢He died before he could achieve this. ➢Completed by Juan Sebastian Elcano.