Hist 106 Super Important Notes.pdf - European Expansion in...

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European Expansion in the Atlantic and Indian Oceans Geographic discovery is more scientific concern. For the sake of knowledge. Going beyond the limits of the known. Expansion implies something more aggressive. Implies colonization And finally, exploitation. Causes and Context of European Expansion: Ottoman expansion challenges old balances, systems and routes of exchange. A new access to South and East Asia is sought. Bypassing the Ottoman Empire. Silk road was problematic, because Asian states were no longer united under the Mongols. The Venetians even plan in the XV century the digging of the Suez Canal. Doesn’t work. Too ambitious. The Portuguese, present in the North Africa (Ceuta) since 1415, attempt to circumnavigate Africa Vasco da Gama (1486) accomplished this. Allowed for the first time to reach India without passing through Ottoman Empire. Going west to find the east. Columbus conceives his plan of reaching the East by navigating westward. Europe more self-confident and aggressive. Recovering from the Black Death, “saturated” continent: the most densely populated and the most urbanized area in the world, 130.000 towns. The Renaissance is one aspect of this self- confidence. Spain has united the Kingdoms of Castilla and Aragon and began expelling non-Christian subjects. Charles V becomes in 1519 ruler of Catholic empire that comprises Spain, German lands, America and Asian colonies. China has abandoned initial enterprises in long distance trade Absence of competition. Vasco de Gama: Portuguese seaman and navigator. Circumnavigates Africa and goes to India. India becomes a Portuguese colony. Indian Ocean was rich geographical region. Full of exchanges and trade Between especially its Muslim side, west, and its Hindu side, east. Lots of exchanges between Muslims and Jewish merchants. Continued by the violent intrusion of the Portuguese, who arrived with war ships. Indian Ocean was not ready to face such a challenge. The Portuguese engaged in an interesting kind of cultural exchange. Hindu architecture with Christian elements in Portugal. And Portuguese architecture in India. Christopher Columbus: 4 voyages, 1492-1502. The idea of finding the east by going the west. Landed the Central America without being conscious. In 1519, the first ship carrying treasuries from the new world reaches Spain. Exploitation begins. Three major civilization, that preexisted in Americas Aztec Mayas Incas Magellan The idea of circumnavigating the new continent to reach the east. Circumnavigation of the Earth He died before he could achieve this. Completed by Juan Sebastian Elcano.

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