1 C A P S U L E S . . . PHAR 2332
Learning Outcomes Define capsules Explain the steps in the production of hard and soft gelatin capsules. Differentiate the formulation properties of fills for hard and soft gelatin capsules. Discuss the different filling processes. 2
CAPSULES DEFINITION: Capsules are solid dosage forms in which one or more medicinal and or inert substances are enclosed within a small shell or container generally prepared from a suitable form of gelatin. 4 The capsule shell are made up of gelatin blends, small amount of certified dyes, opaquants, plasticizers and preservatives. CAPSULE SHELL
CAPSULES ADVANTAGES OF CAPSULES 1.Easy to swallow due to their smooth and slippery nature 2. Easy to handle and carry. 3. Can mask the unpleasant taste, colour and odour of drug using tasteless shell. 4. Better bioavailability than tablets and faster onset of action than tablets – liquid filled. 5. The shells are physiologically inert and easily and quickly digested in the gastrointestinal tract. 6. Improved stability - the shells can be opacified (with titanium dioxide) or coloured, to give protection from light 7. Attractive appearance 5
CAPSULES DISADVANTAGES OF CAPSULES 1. Hygroscopic drugs cannot be filled in capsules 1. Specialised equipments 2. Stability issues with liquid fills 3. Weight uniformity 6
Plasticizer and Gelatin ratio In soft gelatin capsule the amount of plasticizers used is more In soft gelatin capsule the plasticizer and gelatin ratio is 0.8 : 1 In hard gelatin capsule the plasticizer and gelatin ratio is 0.4 : 1 8
Capsule Nature of capsule shell Gelatin Water Opacifying agent –TiO 2 Plasticizers – sorbitol, glycerin Preservative – propyl/methyl paraben Certified dyes 9
GELATIN Gelatin is heterogeneous product derived by hydrolytic extraction of animal's collagen.
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- Fall '19