4_5857373877415446327.docx - Mntambo Ngcebo 2019 Oct/Nov Exam Learning units Topics Learning unit 1 and 2 Physical and Human Environment(Middleton

4_5857373877415446327.docx - Mntambo Ngcebo 2019 Oct/Nov...

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Mntambo Ngcebo 2019 Oct/Nov Exam Learning units Topics Learning unit 1 and 2 Physical and Human Environment (Middleton Chapters 1 and 2) Different schools of environmental thought Technocentric: Human dominance over nature Low priority given to ecosystem functions and resource depletion The natural environment is a resource for human use Material and economic growth for increasing human populations Belief in ample reserves of resources High technological progress and solutions Views humans as separate from, and superior to nature Technology and economics will provide the answers to environmental problems There are no limits to economic growth Ecocentric: Low impact technology and self- reliance is more desirable than technological control of nature Appropriate technology and non- dominating science Fundamental changes are needed along with the redistribution and decentralization of power Simple material needs: goal of self- realization All nature has intrinsic worth: all species are equal Earth’s resources are limited Humans are subject to nature, rather than in control of it Subsystems of the natural environment Biosphere The part of the earth where all organisms live. The atmosphere, lithosphere and hydrosphere function together to create the environment of the biosphere Lithosphere Earth’s crust and upper part of mantle. Consists of rocks (igneous, metamorphic and sedimentary), soil and sediments. Weathering occurs where the lithosphere is exposed to the atmosphere. This gives rise to the formation of soil Atmosphere Gaseous layer surrounding earth Extends to a height of approximately 480 km above the earth's surface. N.B; Learning unit 5 please guys try to explain further
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Mntambo Ngcebo 2019 Oct/Nov Exam Divided into four parts (temperature change with height): troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere and thermosphere Weather occurs in the troposphere, the lowest part of the atmosphere Responsible for the distribution of climates Hydrosphere The water at or near the Earth’s surface as liquid, solid or gas. Includes oceans, lakes, rivers, streams, groundwater and water vapour in the atmosphere Tragedy of the commons “The commons” refers to the resources that are shared by all of humanity and do not belong to individuals or sovereign states. The “tragedy of the commons” refers to the fact that when no regulations exist or where regulations cannot be implemented, no one will take care of a particular resource and only uses the resources for their own benefit until the resource is depleted or severely damaged.
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