ws_ch28_e-已轉檔.docx - 28 Biotechnology Biotechnology refers to the use of organisms biological systems or processes in producing goods or providing

ws_ch28_e-已轉檔.docx - 28 Biotechnology Biotechnology...

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A B 28 Biotechnology Biotechnology refers to the use of organisms , biological systems or processes in producing goods or providing services . 28.1 Recombinant DNA technology Recombinant DNA technology The production of genetically modified organisms ( GMO ) is an application of genetic engineering . Genetic engineering refers to the changing of the genetic make-up of an organism by direct manipulation ( 操作 ) of DNA. In genetic engineering, recombinant DNA technology ( 重組 DNA 技術 ) is often used. This is a technique in which a fragment of DNA (containing a gene) from a donor cell or organism is isolated and then inserted into the DNA of another cell or organism. This allows scientists to introduce new characteristic into an organism by inserting a new gene into its DNA. Processes of recombinant DNA technology Recombinant DNA technology basically involves the cutting of DNA molecules from different sources and joining them together. The resultant DNA is called recombinant DNA . Terms related to the recombinant DNA technology: Term Description Gene of interest ( 目標基因 ) The gene that determines a desirable characteristic Donor cell The cell that contains the gene of interest Host cell ( 宿主細胞 ) The cell to which the gene of interest is transferred for gene expression Vector ( 載體 ) A carrier that transfers the gene of interest to a host cell Plasmid ( 質粒 ) A small ring of extrachromosomal DNA found naturally in bacteria E Common Vector: Plasmid Can replicate Can be transferred between bacteria Carry antibiotic resistance gene (used as a selection marker
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2 Obtain a plasmid from a bacterium. Recombinant DNA technology involves four major steps: donor cell bacterium DNA containin g the gene of interest pl a s m id gene of interest plasmid open plasm recombina The recombinant plasmids can be introduced into host cells (e.g. bacteria, yeast cells, plant cells or mammalian cells) for different purposes, such as: - producing proteins of other species (e.g. human insulin produced by bacteria) - producing GMO that possesses new characteristics.
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