A&P II Exam VI Study Goals.docx - Anatomy Physiology II Study Goals Chapters 26 27 The Urinary System fluid electrolyte acid/base balance FUNCTIONAL

A&P II Exam VI Study Goals.docx - Anatomy Physiology II...

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Anatomy & Physiology II Study Goals Chapters 26 & 27: The Urinary System fluid, electrolyte, acid/base balance FUNCTIONAL ANATOMY: GROSS ANATOMY 1. List the functions of the urinary system. i. Removal of waste products from body fluids ii. Discharge of wastes to environment iii. Homeostatic regulation of volume and solute concentration of blood 2. List the major organs of the urinary system and describe the function of each. i. Kidneys Produces urine ii. Ureter Transports urine toward the urinary bladder iii. Urinary Bladder Temporarily stores urine prior to elimination iv. Urethra Conducts urine to exterior In males, it transports semen as well CONTROL OF URINATION 3. Describe control of urination including the micturition reflex. Include the role of the central nervous system. i. Micturition is activated as bladder fills Stretch receptors in wall of bladder activates the parasympathetic neurons in the sacral spinal cord. Parasympathetic neurons cause contraction of the detrusor muscle Without signals from the brain, voiding will occur Descending axons from pons may inhibit voiding. If no voiding, reflex will subside after several minutes. Additional filling of bladder will activate the reflex again. ii. Micturition reflex is modified by signals from the brain traveling down axons in the spinal cord. Pons provides involuntary control; contains both storage reflex center to inhibit micturition reflex and voiding reflex center to activate reflex. iii. External sphincter is closed as part of the storage reflex. Voluntary signal from cerebral cortex overrides and opens sphincter. 4. Describe how damage to the brain, cervical and thoracic spinal cord, or sacral spinal cord will affect urination. 5. Discuss causes and treatments of incontinence and urinary retention. i. Incontinence: lack of voluntary control of urination. Urination controlled only by micturition reflex. May be caused by o Damage to sphincters o Loss of muscle tone o Damage to spinal cord 1
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o Extensive CNS damage: eg. Alzheimer’s disease o Damage to cervical or thoracic spinal cord ii. Urinary Retention: May be caused by o Swollen prostate gland which partially blocks urethra o General anesthesia (detrusor muscle is inactive) o Damage to pelvic nerves which contain the parasympathetic neurons that cause micturition reflex. The patient may need a catheter FUNCTIONAL ANATOMY: THE NEPHRON 6. Name the functional unit of the kidney. i. Nephrons: microscopic structures where urine is produced. Blood is supplied to the glomerulus of each nephron by an afferent arteriole. 7. Compare the location and function of cortical nephrons and juxtamedullary nephrons. i. Cortical Nephrons: 85% of all nephrons The renal tube is mostly in the cortex Most of nutrient reabsorption occurs here.
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