Greenhalgh_ECCM13_Plenary.pdf - FRACTOGRAPHY OF POLYMER COMPOSITES CURRENT STATUS AND FUTURE ISSUES E S Greenhalgh1 and M J Hiley2 1 2 The Composites

Greenhalgh_ECCM13_Plenary.pdf - FRACTOGRAPHY OF POLYMER...

This preview shows page 1 - 2 out of 15 pages.

FRACTOGRAPHY OF POLYMER COMPOSITES: CURRENT STATUS AND FUTURE ISSUES E. S. Greenhalgh 1 and M. J. Hiley 2 1 The Composites Centre, Imperial College, London, UK, SW7 2AZ 2 Applied Materials, QinetiQ, Farnborough, Hants, UK, GU14 0LX [email protected] ABSTRACT There has been considerable progress in the development of characterisation methods and predictive tools in composite engineering. However, these need to keep pace with the rapid advancement of these materials, such as new processing routes, architectures, constituent types, and applications and drivers for design. Fractographic analysis, the examination of fracture surfaces to deduce information, underpins material development and provides an insight into the physical processes by which composites are damaged and fail. This paper presents the current status of composite fractography, showing that the techniques are well developed, and thus permit the interpretation of most structural failures. However, this paper also highlights the areas in which further research is required, such as linking fracture morphologies to semi-qualitative parameters relating to the loading history and conditions at failure. The influence of factors such as environment and cyclic loading still need to be addressed. Furthermore, as composite architectures move towards increased use of through-thickness reinforcement, there is a need to develop techniques by which such materials can be analysed. However, fractography has proved to be powerful and reliable tool for the composite engineer, and is a vital technique for the overall development of composite structures. 1. INTRODUCTION The development of structural materials tends to focus on three important properties; Young’s Modulus (E), Strength ( σ c ) and Toughness (G C ). To give designers the confidence to use a material, it is important that the influence of factors such as environment, processing, loading conditions and initial damage state on these properties are measured and understood. Knowledge of these means a material can be modelled and thus structural behaviour can be predicted. Consequently, a material technology is deemed to be mature if these three parameters are fully characterised. Numerical and analytical models of materials and structures have now reached an unprecedented level of accuracy and sophistication, such that engineers have a formidable suite of tools at their disposal to develop innovative and efficient structural designs. However, the tools for polymer composites are less mature. Furthermore, their development is striving to keep pace with rapid advancements in composite materials, such as new processing routes, architectures, constituent types, and applications and drivers for design. Therefore, it is perhaps informative to consider the current understanding of stiffness, strength and toughness of polymer composite materials.
Image of page 1

Subscribe to view the full document.

Image of page 2
  • Spring '16
  • Dr.kamran

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern

Ask Expert Tutors You can ask You can ask ( soon) You can ask (will expire )
Answers in as fast as 15 minutes