Chapter 15.pdf - Chapter 15 Blood Order of Blood Draw 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Blood Culture Light Blue(Citrate Red(No Gel Red/Grey or Gold(SST Gel Green(Heparin

Chapter 15.pdf - Chapter 15 Blood Order of Blood Draw 1 2 3...

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Chapter 15: Blood Order of Blood Draw: 1. Blood Culture 2. Light Blue (Citrate) 3. Red (No Gel) 4. Red/Grey or Gold (SST, Gel) 5. Green (Heparin) 6. Lavender (EDTA) 7. Pink (Blood Bank) 8. Gray (Oxalate) What Blood Does Transportation o Oxygen, nutrients, waste Regulation o Temperature, acid-base, fluid-electrolyte balance Protection o Against infection and bleeding Characteristics of Blood Whole Blood o Viscosity (three to five times thicker than H 2 O) o pH (7.35 to 7.45) o Arterial blood: bright red o Venous blood: darker red o Average adult 4 to 6 liters Plasma o Water, electrolytes, ions, and waste o Plasma proteins: Albumin, clotting factors, gamma globulins o Serum: plasma minus clotting factors Blood Has Two Parts Plasma o 55% of total o Clear yellowish liquid Formed elements o 45% of total o Erythrocytes (RBCs) o Leukocytes (WBCs) o Thrombocytes (platelets) Origin of Blood Cells
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Process of blood cell production Two locations of hemopoiesis o Myeloid hemopoiesis in red bone marrow (RBC, WBC, & platelets) o Lymphoid hemopoiesis in lymphoid tissue (only WBC) Hematopoiesis and Red Bone Marrow Origin: Stem cell Three paths o Erythropoiesis o Leukopoiesis o Thrombopoiesis Bone Marrow Depression Occurs if bone marrow cannot produce enough blood cells o Also called myelosuppression Results o Aplastic anemia: RBC deficiency o Leukopenia: WBC deficiency (risk greater for infection) o Thrombocytopenia: platelet deficiency (hemorrhage) Bone marrow Overactivity Leads to excess RBC production o Thickens blood (Meds to depress bone marrow) o Therapeutic phlebotomy Polycythemia Vera o Burdens the heart o Overwhelms clotting system o Causes beet-red face and palms Red Blood Cells Most numerous Shape and contents o Large, disc-shaped, and flexible Because the RBC can bend, it can squeeze its way through tiny blood vessels Flexibility allows the RBC to deliver oxygen to every cell in the body Contain hemoglobin o Globin shapes RBC o Heme carries iron 4.5 to 6 million per microliter (drop) Several million RBCs are made every second Reticulocyte is an immature RBC (grows to a mature RBC within 48 hours) To0 high of a reticulocyte count: anemia/blood loss (bone marrow working hard to replace lost RBC) Too low could indicate myelosuppression
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RBC Count Men 4.5 to 6 million, Women 4.2 to 5.4 million Hemoglobin (Hgb) 13.5 to 17.5 for Men, 12 to 16 for Women Hematocrit (Hct); Men 40 to 50%, Women 37 to 47% Hemoglobin: iron containing protein that helps RBC bond with oxygen and transports carbon dioxide Hematocrit: % of RBC in blood volume Why Blood Changes Its Color Oxyhemoglobin o O 2 binds loosely with iron (Fe) o
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