Chapter 14 PowerPoint.pdf - Spencer L Seager Michael R Slabaugh www.cengage.com/chemistry/seager Chapter 14 Aldehydes and Ketones Jennifer P Harris

Chapter 14 PowerPoint.pdf - Spencer L Seager Michael R...

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Chapter 14 Aldehydes and Ketones Spencer L. Seager Michael R. Slabaugh Jennifer P. Harris
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ALDEHYDES AND KETONES The carbonyl group : Aldehydes have at least one hydrogen attached to the carbonyl group . Ketones have two carbons attached to the carbonyl group .
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ALDEHYDES AND KETONES (continued) Examples:
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NAMING ALDEHYDES Find the longest carbon chain that contains the aldehyde group. Change ending of the root hydrocarbon name by dropping e and adding al. All other branches and groups are named and located using standard IUPAC system. Examples: 3-bromobutanal 2-ethylbutanal
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COMMON ALDEHYDES
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NAMING KETONES Find the longest chain that contains C=O. Using the root alkane name, drop the e ending and change to one. Number the longest carbon chain so the C=O group has the lowest number. Name and number other substituents as before. Examples: 3-methyl-2-pentanone 2-methylcyclohexanone
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COMMON KETONES
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PHYSICAL PROPERTIES The carbonyl group is moderately polar, but it doesn’t have any hydrogen atoms bonded to the oxygen atom, so it cannot hydrogen bond between molecules.
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