Test shit - Test shit Organisms and such Cyanobacteria Blue...

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Test shit Organisms and such// - Cyanobacteria - Blue green algae, microscopic organisms that live in marine habitats. They use sunlight to create their own energy via photosynthesis. (Photosynthetic bacteria) - Enzymes - lowering activation energy - Enzymes lower Gibbs activation energy but has no effect on the free energy of the reaction. The energy created or released during the reaction doesn’t change, the reaction just happens faster. - Transport Proteins - Proteins that transport substances across biological membranes, they can also be found within the membranes to form transport channels. - cAMP - Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate is a second messenger used for intracellular signal transduction such as transferring certain hormones into cells, like adrenaline, that cannot travel through the plasma membrane. cAMP also regulates the functions of ion channels. cAMP is also needed to activate protein kinase A in eukaryotic cells. - Lipid Bilayer - Thin membrane consisting of a phospholipid bilayer. One polar (hydrophilic) head and two nonpolar (hydrophobic) tails on each phospholipid. - Literally a fat membrane that marks the boundaries of cells. - Water and gases can pass easily through the bilayer. Nonpolar and small molecules also have an easier time getting through. Large molecules and polar molecules can not freely pass through the membrane and require structures, like transport channels, to allow passage into the cell. - Cell Cytoskeleton - Present in the cytoplasm of all cells. - Complex network of protein filaments deriving from the nucleus and extending to the cell membrane. - Gives the cell its shape, offers structural support, and moves three main components: microfilaments, intermediate filaments, and microtubules. - Cilia and Flagella - Wittle tails that help them zoom
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- Mitochondria and Chloroplasts (Differences) - Mitochondria are oblong in shape but tend to change shape rapidly. Chloroplasts are ellipsoidal which is symmetrical across three axes. - The inner membrane of mitochondria is more elaborate than that of chloroplasts. Mitochondria membranes are covered in cristae (folds) to maximize surface area. The vast surface area is used to perform many chemical reactions, the main being to combine oxygen and food to create energy. Chloroplast inner membranes while less elaborate have more complexity. The organelle inner membrane consists of thylakoid stacks. The stacks are connected by stromal lamellae, which keep the thylakoid stacks at set distances from each other. Chlorophyll covers each stack and allows the chloroplast to convert photons, water, and carbon dioxide into sugar and oxygen. - Mitochondria have respiratory enzymes and they are unique to the mitochondria. The convert pyruvic acid and other small molecules into ATP.
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