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Running head: SCHIZOPHRENIA AND HEAD TRAUMA 1 The Feasible Link Between Schizophrenia and Head Trauma Frida V. Gaymard Texas A&M International University
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SCHIZOPHRENIA AND HEAD TRAUMA 2 Abstract According to Greek translation, the word “schizo” means split and “phrenia” means mind. It is known to be the most debilitating mental disorder and could present itself in any individual regardless of race, ethnicity, and gender. Now, Traumatic Brain Injuries are known to disrupt the brain and its activity. In the United States of America alone, a yearly estimate of 1.7 million people sustain a brain injury, out of those about 50 thousand individuals die and more than 25 thousand become hospitalized. In order to extrapolate the chronic and distressing mental disorder, Schizophrenia, and its link with traumatic head injuries one must be enlightened in schizophrenia, its’ prenatal factors, how it affects the brain’s the central functioning system including the hippocampal and processing speed, and brain injuries Keywords: psychology, schizophrenia, traumatic brain injury, head trauma, mental illness, psychosis
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SCHIZOPHRENIA AND HEAD TRAUMA 3 Literature Review Schizophrenia is defined as scattered or fragmented pattern of thinking. For every 1,000 adults around the globe, 7 suffer from Schizophrenia. A traumatic brain injury, otherwise known as TBI, is classified as a jolt or blow to the head that penetrates through the skull. Head trauma can cause inflammation in the brain leading to an increased risk of initiating psychological symptoms. Depending on the area of the brain where the damage was done, the impairment can lead to mental disorders. Schizophrenia Literature on psychotic disorders has always been dominated by brain versus mind distinction. Back in the 1970’s, if a biological basis such as brain injury or drugs was suspected, the patients psychosis was diagnosed with schizophrenia. Nowadays, in order to be diagnosed with Schizophrenia, the patient must experience delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech, catatonic behavior or negative symptoms as well as have the symptoms ongoing for six months and no positive testing for drug abuse. Schizophrenia is known to be the most enfeebling chronic disorder. The modal age at onset is in late adolescence or early adulthood. It is proven to take a toll on the primary domains of psychotic symptoms which are perceptual, ideation, and behavioral. These psychotic symptoms are so severe that they entail a distortion in the apprehension of reality which compromises the person’s ability to function. The perceptual domain undergoes hallucinations which are defined as sensory experiences in the absence of sensory stimuli. The ideational manifestations present thought disorder such as delusions. Lastly the behavioral abnormalities include bizarre movements such as postures and rituals. Blunted and inappropriate emotional expression is a symptom of this mental illness as well. According to the article Schizophrenia , which includes postmortem and pnemortemphalographic studies,
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