PROBLEM SET 5 Key.docx - PROBLEM SET 5 Key 1 The rate at which the temperature increases with depth is called the geothermal gradient What is the

# PROBLEM SET 5 Key.docx - PROBLEM SET 5 Key 1 The rate at...

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PROBLEM SET 5 Key 1. The rate at which the temperature increases with depth is called the geothermal gradient. What is the geothermal gradient (slope) in a tectonically stable the temperature is140 C at a depth of 5 km? Assume a surface rock temperature of 10 C. Geothermal Gradient = (140 C – 10 C) / (5 km – 0 km) = 130 C / 5 km = 26 C/km 2. Based on a geothermal gradient of 15 C/km, what is the temperature at a depth of 4 km? Assume the temperature at the surface is 20 C. 15 C/km = (t - 20 C) / (4 km – 0 km) t = (15 C/km x 4 km) + 20 C = 80 C 3. If the distance between the city of Natal at the easternmost point of Brazil and Mt Cameroon in central western Africa is about 5,000 km, how long did it take the Southern Atlantic Ocean to open if the average rate of spreading has been 3.5 cm/year? V = D / T T = D / V = 5 x 10 6 m / 3.5 x 10 -2 m/yr = 1.43 x 10 8 yrs 4. What is the pressure in N/m 2 at the depth of 5 km? Density of oceanic crust = 3 g/cm 3 = 3 x 10 3 kg/m 3 P = D x H x g = (3 x 10 3 kg/m 3 ) x (5 x 10 3 m) x (9.8 m/s 2 ) = 1.47 x 10 8

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