E3 - Psychology Review CHAPTER 10 Self-concept...

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Psychology Review: CHAPTER 10 Self-concept - domain-specific evaluations of the self - Self esteem and self concept : foundations start with quality parent-child interactions Self-efficiency - the belief that one can master a situation & produce favorable outcomes - EX. if you believe, it will be. Doesn't matter what others think Self-esteem - global evaluations of the self - self-worth or self-image - Children w/ high self-esteem (Positive or Negative) - May not be better at school - can distort ability - greater initiative - fixated on one single characteristic = you lose it & you get embarrassed - Children w/ low self-esteem - linked to obesity, anxiety, depression, suicide, delinquency - accurate or distorted self-perception Self-regulation - deliberate efforts to manage one’s behavior, emotions, thoughts - leads to increased social competence/achievement Prosocial Behaviors - girls more prosocial, empathic - traits people display may vary with the situation Erik Erikson Psychosocial Stages in Chapters 10-13 Understand what happens in each stage both good and bad. 1. Industry vs. Inferiority a. Industry i. Children interested in how things work ii. EX. taking things apart iii. Receive parental encouragement (GOOD) b. Inferiority i. Parents see child's effort as mischief/making a mess (BAD) ii. Encourage inferiority 2. Identity vs. Identity a. Adolescents experiment w/ different roles/personalities i. Adolescents who cope w/ conflicting identities emerge w/ new sense of self (GOOD)
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ii. Adolescents who don't resolve the identity crisis suffer identity confusion (BAD) Gender Stereotypes - Broad categories that reflect general impressions and beliefs about males and females - Gender similarities and differences: Physical, Cognitive, and Socioemotional development. Gender differences in emotions/personalities overall socioemotional development: - (COGNITIVE ) Gender differences: - Verbal Skills-- Girls better . - No difference in math. - Visuospatial skills-- some girls better. - Writing skills-- Girls better. - Achievement-- girls better - (SOCIOEMOTIONAL ) Gender differences: - Aggression: boys physically, girls verbally. - Emotion: Small differences… Girls can recognize nonverbal emotions. Girls show sympathy, internalize emotions, and self regulate. Gender Identities: - refers to one’s sense of oneself as male, female, or something else - when ones gender identity and biological sex are not congruent, the individual may identify along the transgender spectrum Gender Schemas - A theory of gender development that combines social learning/cognitive learning theory. - gender roles are formed in part by observing others/learning how others act and from accomplishing different cognitive tasks specific to cultures that are done by men/women. Stepfamilies - Remarriages involving children has grown in recent years.
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