Chapter 20.docx - Chapter 20 Perfusion is the flow of blood...

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Chapter 20 Perfusion is the flow of blood through a tissue or an organ o Delivers O2 and nutrients and removes CO2 and waste products o Depends on actual needs of the tissues o Autoregulation is controlled intrinsically by modifying the diameter of local arterioles feeding the capillaries Independent of MAP Short term autoregulation Metabolic control (chemical) o Constriction/dilation o Endothelin causes vasoconstriction Myogenic control (physical) o Sphincter muscles o Passive stretch promotes increased tone and vasoconstriction Long term autoregulation Depends on angiogenesis o Occurs when short term can’t meet tissue nutrient requirements Blood flow through skeletal muscles o Muscle blood flow can increase ten times or more during physical activity Blood flow through brain o Blood flow is constant, as neurons are intolerant of ischemia o Brain is vulnerable under extreme systemic pressure changes MAP below 60 can cause syncope (fainting) MAP above 160 can cause cerebral edema Blood flow through skin o Helps maintain body temperature o Provides blood reservoir o Controlled by sympathetic nervous system Blood flow through lungs o Arterial resistance and pressure are low o
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