18_SFS_demo.pdf - FRSC-BIOL 3700 18 – Site-Frequency-Spectrum Demography Aaron Shafer Last Lecture • Genome-wide Association Studies • Phenotype ~

18_SFS_demo.pdf - FRSC-BIOL 3700 18 –...

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FRSC-BIOL 3700 18 – Site-Frequency-Spectrum & Demography Aaron Shafer
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Last Lecture Genome-wide Association Studies Phenotype ~ Genotype Genotype = 10 6 SNPs, haplotypes, ROH Phenotype = something presumed heritable
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Last Lecture Simple design Multistage and pooled design
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Last Lecture Multiple tests means need to increase stringency
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Last Lecture 1 large effect gene OR many genes of small effect influencing the phenotype The latter is why GWAS often miss a large portion of heritability
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Inferring demographics from genetic data Demography is the study of the characteristics of populations - it provides a mathematical description of how those characteristics change over time Several parameters are particularly important: population size , density, age structure, migration , fecundity (birth rates), mortality (death rates), and sex ratio “Standard” genetic patterns can tell us something demography – both through visualization and calculation of summary statistics
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Novembre et al. (2008) Nature Genes mirror geography
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Non-humans the same thing Populations far apart are less genetically similar (isolation-by-distance)
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Non-humans the same thing Compared to a randomly mating populations
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Summary statistics tell us something: Heterozygosity and Wright’s F statistics Tajima’s D
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