第一章Introduction toThermodynamics m.pdf - Chap 1 Introduction and Definition of Terms Septemper 1 2008 1.1 – Introduction What is Thermodynamics

第一章Introduction toThermodynamics m.pdf - Chap 1...

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Septemper 1, 2008 Chap. 1 Introduction and Definition of Terms
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Septemper 1, 2008 1.1 Introduction What is Thermodynamics?
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Septemper 1, 2008 1.1 Introduction 1.) There is no single or simple definition that covers all aspects of thermodynamics. Definitions vary from discipline to discipline. However, thermodynamics always deals with transformations of energy between heat and other forms of energy (mechanical, chemical, electrical, etc.) and their consequences on the states of matter. 2.) Thermodynamics and Kinetics (fluid-dynamics and electrodynamics) constitute the two major disciplines of the classical science of the 19 th century. The classical thermodynamics is a phenomenological (i.e., macroscopic) science and is independent of the nature of constituent particles (such as atoms, ions, etc.) The microscopic extension of thermodynamics was developed in the 20th century and deals with the atomic nature of the material systems. This is called statistical thermodynamics.
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Septemper 1, 2008 1.1 Introduction 3.) Thermodynamics is taught in almost all disciplines (astronomy, biology, chemistry, mechanical engineering, physics, and MSE to name just a few). In MSE, we deal primarily with what is known as the “Chemical Thermodynamics” which involves the effect of heat on chemical changes in a system. 4.) The field of chemical thermodynamics covers a wide range of topics. The topics of interest to MSE (and the ones that we will study) are: a). Phase equilibria b). Chemical (reaction) equilibria c). Solution equilibria Other topics include surface equilibria, electro-chemical equilibria, etc.
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Septemper 1, 2008 Chapter 1 Introduction Thermodynamics: branch of science that describes the behavior of matter and the transformation between different forms of energy on a macroscopic scale (human scale and larger). Thermodynamics studies the energy conversion between the heat and the work. (The Great Britain Encyclopedia) For mechanical engineering, the subject of interest is the efficiency of energy conversion. For materials science and engineering, chemical reaction system. The aim of applied thermodynamics is the establishment of a given system and the influences which are brought to bear on the system
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Septemper 1, 2008 1.1 Introduction Uses of thermodynamics
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Septemper 1, 2008 1.1 Introduction Uses of thermodynamics •enables one to derive relationships that quantitatively describe the nature of the conversion of energy from one form into another •can be used to predict the equilibrium state of a reactive mixture as well as the natural direction of change in a system not at equilibrium •thermodynamics can’t predict how long it takes for equilibrium to be reached
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Septemper 1, 2008 1.1 Introduction Uses of thermodynamics For Materials Science and Engineering: understand how the properties of materials are affected by ‘thermodynamic processes’ (processes that involve changes in the material energy) to control properties through its determination of structure
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Septemper 1, 2008 1.1 Introduction Process
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Septemper 1, 2008 1.1
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