Marine Bio Test Prep.doc - MARINE BIOLOGY EXAM I Ocean Exploration Chinese were great sailors(invented the compass center stern rudder watertight

Marine Bio Test Prep.doc - MARINE BIOLOGY EXAM I Ocean...

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MARINE BIOLOGY EXAM I: Ocean Exploration : Chinese were great sailors (invented the compass, center stern rudder, watertight compartments, sails that could be raised and lowered from the decks.) Evidence of navigational charts from Micronesia. Used bamboo sticks to represent waves and currents. With the invention of Harrison’s H4 chronometer – longitude could be calculated on board (latitude was figured out much earlier – based on the sun). We had the 1 st scientific journey of the ocean with the converted war vessel Challenger from 1872-1876. They sampled water and figured out the “rule of proportions” of sea water. Atlantis – first ship built solely for scientific research. Late 1960s – deep sea submersibles like Alvin in use – about the time that we land on the moon. 30 years later the Japanese set a record depth of over 36,000 ft. Evolution of Ocean Basins: This goes along with the evolution of land masses and Plate Tectonics. Maria Tharp mapped the Atlantic’s floor. Found the mid-Atlantic ridge where new crust is being added. Found that there is a rift valley atop the ridge. Found trenches where the sea floor is cooling and settling (and eventually heats up again.) A map of earthquakes matches these ocean ridges. Continental crust impedes heat flow from the mantle, it expands and forms rift valleys and faults. Magma comes up through the ridges and the ocean basin widens, then closes in, then forms mountains. This takes millions of years. Plate tectonics: The upper mantle is 10% viscous so land masses can move on the crust over time. Evidence: in the Lesser Antilles and the Seychelles islands there are granite and tonalite formations (in the BVIs – it’s granite w/less K). Granite is what the continents are composed of; the sea floor is basically salt and minerals. This shows that the core of the volcanoes were close to land masses; the granite moved along with the islands as they separated from the continents. Evidence: German meteorologist Alfred Wegener found evidence of a mesosaurus in both Africa and S. America. He also found evidence that they shared the same climate; this must have been the case before the S. American and African plates shifted away from each other. Sea shells on Mt. Everest when India crashed into Asia and the Himalayas shot up. “Entangled Bank” v. “Express/Freight Train” hypotheses: Polynesian islands (central and eastern Pacific) were the last major sites to be settled. EB says that people slowly filtered down from Asia to Polynesia. ET says that migration was much quicker. Proof of this is in the moth skinks who live in these regions. Skinks are terrestrial so they must have been transplanted by humans in order to have such a widespread distribution across the Pacific. The eastern and central populations of the skinks have DNA that varies only slightly from each other. The western populations of Polynesia have greater sequence divergence in their mitochondrial DNA than their eastern counterparts.
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  • Spring '13
  • GeorgeV.Lauder

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