CardiovascularSystem_Heart_Exam3.docx - The Heart Anatomy o 4 Chambers 1 2 Atrial Chambers(Left and Right 2 2 Ventricular Chambers(Left and Right o

CardiovascularSystem_Heart_Exam3.docx - The Heart Anatomy o...

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The Heart Anatomy o 4 Chambers 1. 2 Atrial Chambers (Left and Right) 2. 2 Ventricular Chambers (Left and Right) o Blood Flow in the heart: 1. R Atrial Chamber > R Ventricular Chamber > Pulmonary Trunk > Pulmonary Arteries > Lungs > Pulmonary Veins (2 Left and 2 Right) > L Atrial Chamber > L Ventricular Chamber > Ejected via Aorta o 4 Valves 1. Atrioventricular Valve (AV): Located between Atrial Chamber and Ventricular Chamber 2. Tricuspid Valve: Located between R Atrial and L Ventricular Chordae Tendinea Papillary Muscles 3. Bicuspid Valve (Mitral): Located between L Atrial and L Ventricular 4. Semilunar Valves (SLV): Located between Ventricles and their respective arteries Pulmonary SLV: Located between R Ventricular and Pulmonary Trunk Aortic SLV: Located between L Ventricular and Aorta o Ligamentum Arteriosus: connects the Pulmonary Trunk to the AV/ has no function 1. In a fetus this is known as the Ductus Arteriosus/ forces blood to travel into the lungs at birth, then this fills with connective tissue and becomes useless o Heart Wall: 1. Epicardium: AKA Visceral Pericardium/ outer layer of the heart wall/ thin 2. Myocardium: middle layer of heart wall/ thick 3. Endocardium: inner layer of the heart wall/ very thin o Difference in Sizes: 1. L Ventricle is much larger and thicker Myocardium than the R Ventricle because the BP must be higher to eject blood Physiology o 2 Step Pump 1. Simultaneous contraction of the L and R Atrial Chambers 2. Simultaneous contraction of the L and R Ventricular Chambers o Systole: period when contraction is occurring 1. Atrial Systole: when L and R Atrial Chambers simultaneously contract 2. Ventricular Systole: when L and R Ventricular Chambers simultaneously contract o Diastole: period when relaxation occurs following a contraction 1. Atrial Diastole: when L and R Atrial Chambers simultaneously relax 2. Ventricular Diastole: when L and R Ventricular Chambers simultaneously relax Cardiac Cycle: o Periods 1. Ventricular Filling: occurs during diastole AV are open/ Atrial BP is higher than Ventricular BP SLV are closed/ Atrial BP is higher than Ventricular BP 70% of Ventricular Filling has occurred 2. Atrial Systole: occurs during simultaneous contraction of Atrial Chambers
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  • Spring '14
  • MarkS.Kosco

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