RespiratorySystem_Exam3.docx - Physiology of Lungs o Respiration exchange of gasses between an organism and the external environment 4 Processes 1

RespiratorySystem_Exam3.docx - Physiology of Lungs o...

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Physiology of Lungs o Respiration: exchange of gasses between an organism and the external environment 4 Processes: 1. Pulmonary Ventilation: inspiration and expiration (breathing) o Regulations: Nerul Regulation Medulla Oblongata Inspiratory Group: nerve fibers connect to Respiratory Muscles (Diaphragm, External Intercostal) Expiratory Group: active during forced expiration/ bioelectrical info sent to Internal Intercostal Muscles to make them contract PONS: Pneumotaxic Center: send bioelectrical information to shut down the Inspiratory Group, which causes expiration to occur Apneustic Center: send bioelectrical information to keep the Inspiratory Group active when Pneumotaxic Center is inactive Hering-Bheur Reflex: Baroreceptors located inside Bronchiole walls, which monitor the pressure against the wall > sends info to Medulla > shuts off Inspiratory Group/ prevents over-inflation Chemical Regulation Chemoreceptor: takes chemical stimulation to convert it to bioelectrical information Aortic and Carotid Bodies: located in the Aorta and Carotid Sinus/ respond to blood H+ concentration, PCO2, and PO2 levels Chemosensitive Area of the Medulla Oblongata: respond to blood H+ concentration and PCO2 levels o Pressures Intrapulmonary Pressure: pressure within the lungs
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Inspiration: Intrapulmonary Pressure (757mmHg) must be less than Atmospheric Pressure (760mmHg) Expiration: Intrapulmonary Pressure (763mmHg) must be greater than Atmospheric Pressure (760mmHg) Intrapleural Pressure: pressure within the thoracic cavity Intrapleural Pressure is always less than Atmospheric Pressure (760mmHg) Intrapulmonary Pressure (757-763 mmHg) is greater than Intrapleural Pressure Trans pulmonary Pressure Gradient: pressure difference across the wall of the lung = Intrapulmonary Pressure – Intrapleural Pressure Boyle’s Law: increase volume of container > decrease of pressure inside / decrease volume of container > increase of pressure inside o Inspiration: active process – needs energy for muscle contraction (Page 858) Muscles: Diaphragm: sheet of skeletal muscle that separates the thoracic cavity from the abdominal cavity When it contracts- bends downward > Increase Thoracic volume > Decrease Intrapleural Pressure > Increase of Lung Volume > Decrease
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  • Spring '14
  • MarkS.Kosco

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