Wheat Gluten Functionality as.pdf - FO03CH23-Delcour ARI ANNUAL REVIEWS 1 February 2012 14:30 Further Annu Rev Food Sci Technol 2012.3:469-492

Wheat Gluten Functionality as.pdf - FO03CH23-Delcour ARI...

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Wheat Gluten Functionality as a Quality Determinant in Cereal-Based Food Products Jan A. Delcour, Iris J. Joye, Bram Pareyt, Edith Wilderjans, Kristof Brijs, and Bert Lagrain Laboratory of Food Chemistry and Biochemistry, and Leuven Food Science and Nutrition Research Center (LFoRCe), Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, B-3001 Leuven, Belgium; email: [email protected], [email protected], [email protected], [email protected], [email protected], [email protected] Annu. Rev. Food Sci. Technol. 2012. 3:469–92 First published online as a Review in Advance on December 12, 2011 The Annual Review of Food Science and Technology is online at food.annualreviews.org This article’s doi: 10.1146/annurev-food-022811-101303 Copyright c 2012 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved 1941-1413/12/0410-0469$20.00 Keywords gliadin, glutenin, processing, cross-linking, bread, pasta Abstract The unique properties of wheat reside primarily in its gluten-forming storage proteins. Their intrinsic viscoelastic behavior is responsible for the char- acteristics of different wheat-based foods and for the use of wheat gluten proteins in different food products. Wheat-based food processing generally develops and sets the gluten protein network. Heat-induced gluten aggrega- tion proceeds through cross-linking within and between its protein fractions. Prominent reactions include sulfhydryl (SH) oxidation and SH-disulfide (SS) interchange, which lead to SS cross-links. Other covalent bonds are also formed. Gluten functionality can be (bio-) chemically impacted. We focus on bread making, in which gluten proteins contribute to dough properties, bread loaf volume, and structure, and on pasta production, in which gluten proteins generate the desired cooking quality. Furthermore, it is speculated that the structure and texture of soft wheat products are also, at least to some degree, shaped by the heat-induced changes in the gluten protein fraction. 469 Annu. Rev. Food Sci. Technol. 2012.3:469-492. Downloaded from by Katholiek Universiteit Leuven - KU LEUVEN on 03/12/12. For personal use only.
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Protein: biochemical compound consisting of one or more polypeptides folded into a globular or fibrous form Dough: paste made by mixing wheat flour with water (typically 600 g of water per kg flour) INTRODUCTION AND SCOPE Of all cereal grains, wheat and rice are the most important food grains. Wheat ranks fourth (2008 data) in total production of all commodities produced worldwide (FAOSTAT 2011). Most ( > 90%) of the wheat grown worldwide is from the hexaploid (three genomes, AABBDD) Triticum aestivum L. species often referred to as common or bread wheats. Genes on the D genome encode for proteins with a profound impact on dough rheology and hence bread-making characteristics of wheat flour. In the case of Triticum durum Desf. (durum wheat, tetraploid, A and B genomes), its coarse milling product, i.e., semolina (also referred to as middlings) is primarily used for pasta production (Wrigley 2009). Durum wheat has protein levels varying from 9% to 18% (Feillet 1988) and is the hardest of all wheat species. In North American terminology, the
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