Ocean Environments Notes.doc - OCEAN ENVIRONMENTS Overview of Oceans and Major Groups of Ocean Life Cypraea moneta Fiji A gastropod mollusk Live in

Ocean Environments Notes.doc - OCEAN ENVIRONMENTS Overview...

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OCEAN ENVIRONMENTS Overview of Oceans and Major Groups of Ocean Life Cypraea moneta, Fiji. A gastropod mollusk. Live in Cowry shells. The mollusk gives off necre (a smooth coating of secreted skin that covers the shell). They live under coral during the day. The shells used to be used for barter – a “cowry economy”. Coralline red algae, Rhodophytes. These hold reefs together. Red algae are red because of the presence of pigment that reflects red light and absorbs blue light. Because blue light penetrates water to a greater depth than light of longer wavelengths, these pigments allow red algae to photosynthesize and live at somewhat greater depths than most other "algae". Some Rhodophytes have very little pigment, and may appear green or bluish from the chlorophyll and other pigments present in them. In Asia, Rhodophytes are important sources of food, such as nori. The high vitamin and protein content of this food makes it attractive, as does the relative simplicity of cultivation, which began in Japan more than 300 years ago. Some Rhodophytes are also important in the formation of tropical reefs, an activity with which they have been involved for millions of years; in some Pacific atolls, red algae have contributed far more to reef structure than other organisms, even more than corals. These reef-building Rhodophytes are called coralline algae , because they secrete a hard shell of carbonate around themselves, in much the same way that corals do. Sea salt. Can see the crystallized salts in huge pans. Illustration of earth’s layers: Inner core > Outer core > Mantle >> Crust >> Asthenosphere > Lithosphere The major compositional layers of the Earth are the core , the mantle and the crust . The lithosphere includes all of the crust and the uppermost part of the mantle . The asthenosphere comprises much of the upper mantle . The Moho , or Mohorovicic discontinuity , is the boundary between the crust and the mantle . These compositional and mechanical layers play a significant role in the movement of the Earth's tectonic plates. The Pacific Ocean has been called a “ring of fire” because of the number of earthquakes and volcanic eruptions (volcanism). This activity is due to the mid-Atlantic ridge spreading and the forces of the ocean pushing. Cnidarians w/stinging cells have neurotoxins. Segmented worms/polypeda that have many mouth parts (unlike earthworms) and fake feet on each segment. Clams have in-current and ex-current siphons. Estuaries and Salt Marshes
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Sand dollars: 5 “arms” or pentaradial. Linkage back to starfish. Echinoderm. Live on sand bottom or a little bit buried. Covered with short spiny brown skin. Mouth is on bottom with 5 teeth. Usually you find it’s shell scoured on the beach. Many live at Sandy Neck in Cape Cod.
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  • Spring '13
  • GeorgeV.Lauder

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