Test 3 Review.pdf - Test 3 Tuesday 10:29 PM Gestalt...

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- Holism: mental experience can't be understood by an account of the properties of its ingredients We don’t directly perceive reality, we construct it - Kant What is a square? - Mach: we see relations between stimuli, relationships define geometric forms Known for forms that appear in music: melody - Ehrenfels: coined term gestalt quality Perceptual phenomena Productive (higher form) vs. reproductive thinking Wertheimer: apparent movement, objectless movement Principles of Gestalt Developmental psychology Introduced concepts Geographical and behavioral environment Koffka: introduced gestalt to America Transpositional learning: lower level animals (chicken) learn relationships to stimuli Stimuli with lighter shade: availability of reinforcement Monkeys Box stacking experiment: monkey can't reach bananas, sees boxes around and stacks them on top of each other to get bananas Learning the solution to a problem through cognitive process not trial and error Contrasted with Thorndike's trial and error learning Kohler criticized Thorndike Insight learning Kohler: learning in animals - Wertheimer (father of gestalt) Kohler and, Koffka= gestalt psychology Rubin - Figure ground circulation Stimuli that are similar to one another are perceived as a unit - Law of Similarity Things that are closer together are perceived as a unit - Law of proximity Good continuation Don’t divide into left and right sides - Law of continuity
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