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Study Guide 2What is Culture?•“To understand human action, we must understand how people define their world”•Does the fish notice the water (what is around us?)Culture:Language, beliefs, values, norms, behaviors, and material objects that are passed from one generation to the next, a distinctive way of life of a particular group or society, and a shared perspective on the world.•We learn culture through socialization.•There is nothing :normal about culture•Culture is the lens through which we see the world•It is important to our sociological imagination to realize the impact of culture on a person.Two major components of culture1.material culture-stuff you can touch2.non-material/symbolic culture•gestures•language•values•norms3 Kinds of Norms1.Folkways-norms that are not strictly enforced2.More-norms that are strictly enforced and are essential to core values of society3.Taboos-norms that are so essential to society that to violate it brings revulsion (incest)4.Moral Holiday-specific times when people are allowed to break norms (mardi gras) 5.Sanction-any means by which a moral code is enforced•Positive: a reward for following norms•Negative: a punishment for not following a norm•Formal: prison sentence•Informal: smile or frownIdeal vs. Real CultureIdeal: ideal values and norms of a cultureReal: value and norms culture actually follows
What happens when we change cultures?Culture Shock- Disorientation people feel when coming into contact with a radically different cultureSubculture-A world within the larger world of dominant cultureCounterculture- A group whose values, beliefs, and related behaviors place it in opposition to the broader culture.The NaciremaEthnocentrism:using ones own culture as a yardstick by which they evaluate another culture.•Positive- can create in group loyalties•Negative- can create prejudice to out groupCultural Relativism: trying to understand different cultures on their own termsCultural Diffusion:spreading of cultural characteristics from one group to anotherCultural Leveling:Cultures become similar to one another Cultural Lag:Human behavior lagging behind technologySocialization: lifelong process where individuals learn the norms and values to which they belong•Continuing lifelong process that is always happening•Prerequisite for society or social groups survival•Successful social interaction requires being able to conceptualize others viewpoints and anticipate others actionsVideo: Secret of the Wild Child•Nature(heredity) vs. Nurture(social)•“society makes us human”Looking Glass-Self•