Study Guide exam 2 - Study Guide 2 What is Culture"To...

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Study Guide 2 What is Culture? “To understand human action, we must understand how people define their world” Does the fish notice the water (what is around us?) Culture: Language, beliefs, values, norms, behaviors, and material objects that are passed from one generation to the next, a distinctive way of life of a particular group or society, and a shared perspective on the world. We learn culture through socialization. There is nothing :normal about culture Culture is the lens through which we see the world It is important to our sociological imagination to realize the impact of culture on a person. Two major components of culture 1. material culture-stuff you can touch 2. non-material/symbolic culture gestures language values norms 3 Kinds of Norms 1. Folkways- norms that are not strictly enforced 2. More- norms that are strictly enforced and are essential to core values of society 3. Taboos- norms that are so essential to society that to violate it brings revulsion (incest) 4. Moral Holiday- specific times when people are allowed to break norms (mardi gras) 5. Sanction- any means by which a moral code is enforced Positive: a reward for following norms Negative: a punishment for not following a norm Formal: prison sentence Informal: smile or frown Ideal vs. Real Culture Ideal : ideal values and norms of a culture Real : value and norms culture actually follows
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What happens when we change cultures? Culture Shock- Disorientation people feel when coming into contact with a radically different culture Subculture- A world within the larger world of dominant culture Counterculture - A group whose values, beliefs, and related behaviors place it in opposition to the broader culture. The Nacirema Ethnocentrism: using ones own culture as a yardstick by which they evaluate another culture. Positive- can create in group loyalties Negative- can create prejudice to out group Cultural Relativism : trying to understand different cultures on their own terms Cultural Diffusion: spreading of cultural characteristics from one group to another Cultural Leveling: Cultures become similar to one another Cultural Lag: Human behavior lagging behind technology Socialization : lifelong process where individuals learn the norms and values to which they belong Continuing lifelong process that is always happening Prerequisite for society or social groups survival Successful social interaction requires being able to conceptualize others viewpoints and anticipate others actions Video: Secret of the Wild Child Nature(heredity) vs. Nurture(social) “society makes us human” Looking Glass-Self
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