Anthropology 1 - Fall 2002 - Ray - Final Exam

Anthropology 1 - Fall 2002 - Ray - Final Exam -...

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Unformatted text preview: rt-m-r-tn..ir'-l=t"‘4'w lit-“fl. t ._. tee-L" — I: Anthropology I: Introduction to Physical Ant .‘ University of California, Berkeley Fa gt 3 II! {j '-' IE-i i’tect it"s. LL-W'i FINAL EXAM: 15!] POINTS In structions: i. There will be NO 'I‘ALKING once the first exam is handed out. 2. If you have a question, raise your hand, and someone will come to help you. Respect your tellow students in the process. 3. lfyou are suspected ofeheating, you will be given a warning, or asked to more, or asked to [care and surrender your exam. You may receive zero points on the exam. 4. Answer all the questions on your Seantron slteet. Be certain that you have completely erased any incorrect answers on your Seantron and properly tilled in the letter with a #1 pencil. 5- Fach multiple choice question is worth 2 points. As always, there are no penalties for guessing+ so even ifyou do not know the answer. Ill] one in...you may get lucltyl ————-———_—_—__ I. All ,causrchincs—arc characterized by a rlental 5. The spread of a group of organisms and their rapid formula of: speciation lollowing the availability ol' new _tt_. 24-33 ecological niches is known as: h. 3— I 2—: a. parallel erolntion c. 2—1-3-3 h. natural selection d. 1—1-3—2 c. oniliin'nitari anisni c. 3—1-26 d. adaptive radiation 'e. genetic drift 1". 1l'v'hieh oI"Lhe following is not a chemical base ol‘ DIME-t? 5. Which of the lollowing is found only in South rt. Adenine Africa? it. Tlty'lnirle a. A. bonsai c. Cytosinc h. H. irrrhilirfi'odoifltensis l“III L d. Guanine e. A. egr'hrensis I 'h e. Uracil . tf H. ereettrs _ e. A. oji'r'eonrrs 3. tl‘wc traveled hack in time organs years ago. we A might expect to see: _ 7'. (._lgngtlow is a three for evolutionary change due a: Home .I'meth'.caautot'fi:usi's to its changing allele Frequencies U'thlngl'l: h. xi. roan-mo nearing extinction a. small population sizes or Ne andenals h. rand oat changes d. The first cities e. the chance contributions of Lhe founding 4:"! A. ryh't'arrtts mcmhci's . adaptations to new environments 4. 1Which ot‘ the following is HO'I' a lton'iinoid‘? e. the exchange of genes between populations [1. bit lJoons _ h. gorillas tl. Postcranially, Neandertals were: c orangutans :1. tall and gracile d. chimpanzees l3. robust and lteayity muscled e humans c less robust than modern humans :1 less robust than Hem-o erectio- e the same as modern humans for rohusticity 9. on ape From if) mya could be distinguished from a monkey from the same time period and :eograpltical region because: monkeys live on the ground, apes live in the trees b. the ape has 2 lower premolars than the monkey e. the ape is diurnal, the monkey is ooetumal . ' the ape has a ‘i’-5 cusp molar pattern, the monkey has a bilophodont molar pattern e. none ol‘thc above. monkeys and apes did not live iii the same time period PU“ ltl. 'lhe shaded area on the human brain diagram below is: __a. Broea’s area, where sourtds and speeclt are prod Liecd h. 't‘r'eniielte‘s area. where speech is received and ittle rpreied e. Broea‘s area, where speech is received and interpreted d. ‘v‘t’emicite‘s area, where sounds and speech ore _f'.'- produced tlte Angular Gyros. connecting Broea's and Wei-nicke‘s areas | | . 1which of the following are vertebrates? a. birds b. amphibians c. mammals It]. " allol'the above c. h and s only l2. The first hominid group to migrate to North attd South America was: it. Home .ifii‘j‘i'lt-Tifl'. iretrrnrt'erihm’entis i).— Hamo .t'upt'eira' .t'rrpr'ens e. Home ergrorerr’ereems Li. Home hoist?t'avl'ardrhffensris e. .h I'eltaie Hem o .ropr'ens l3. H's phylogenetic tree a. has a time dimension b. so g gears ancestral-descend ant relationships c. is based an ancestral and derived traits d." all til'tjte above e. a artd h only M. The muscular system a. can be inferred to a certain degree From the skeletal system h. is responsible for movemettt e. is integrated with the skeletal system d," all orthc above a. none at" the aba ve t5. This site has revealed the greatest gigantitv of data on early hetninid behavior: a. Htcrl-tl'onrein ' {llduvai gorge e. Luelt'lli d. Le Moustier Emeryville Shell Mound Ifi. Interpreting fossil data is difficult because: a. we cannot discover, but can only inl‘er, ancestor— deeendant relationships h. we must infer the conditions ol‘irs life from the conditions of iLs death physiology and behavior do not t‘ossilize all of the above a and e only on." ll. Whieh arrangement of fossil species below shows the species listed from chronologically oldest to ntost WA. here stands for xiiisirriiripiiheetrs}: a. A. ofin'el'ei't's. .-l. qfrt'cvmus, A. horse! ‘11.!" A. ofrimino', .al. ofr'n-ensis, A. t'ior'sei' e. A. bolster] .‘l. ry'i'irt-‘nsis, .Jl. ry'i'ieurno' d. .4. been?!) A. ear-nearing A. rilyl'I-rretra'r'a' e. A. aforetrsia'. .11. bolser‘, (l. rifrr'c'rnrtrs 13. .fit polymorphism is: . a generic trait with two or more alleles in frequencies greater than We in a population b. a genetic trail with two or more alleles in frequencies higher than can be explained by ntutalion alone ageneiie trail Willi more than one allele all oi'thc above e. none of the above on l9. The best reason it is a tnistaJ-te to regard Hon-to crochet as inst a species “on the way to beeelltitlg us" is because: a. Homo erectiis was probably not the ancestor of Home srrpit'eos 'b_. Homo erecttts existed for far longer than our Species has, so it was it l«'cl'y successful species itt its own right c. The evidence for the existence of Home ere'ctrrs is very Flimsy. consisting of falsified Fossils and vanished specimens d. aii oi" the above e. a and e only 2i}. "Fitness" inrfltfitjvolutionary sense refers only In an individual's: a. strength he ' reproductive success c aggressiveness rl size e age at dead-t 11. Australopitheeines lived: a in Ali'ica b. in Africa and Asia e i in Africa, Europe and Asia d. in Ali-tea, Europe. Asia and South America e. nottc oi'lhc above 22. We can infer dtat Aegyptopitiiecio' probably had a nrtc Inttle : muiti female socia] system because: a. all living primates have one male : muhi ternale social systems b. most of the fossils tltat have been found are formic. which suggests that there were Few males e.‘ it 1a'as sexually dimorphic in canine si2c1anti tltose primate species tend to live in such groups ti. we can‘t make this assertionr since tve can make Itc- inferences about social strtteture in fossil species e. this assertion is incorrect, since all Miocene primates lived in semi—solitary social systems 23. Compared with modern humans, the skull of Home! erecrtts is characterized by: smaller brain size a protruding trace post—orbital constriction all of the above none n1" the above Fir-inst? 2-1. The "rtuchai torus" is: a. a deep groove on the femur. reflecting hipedalistn h. a part eflltc Shoulder. superficially resembling the condition in bulls a thickening, or ridge ot'hone on the back ot'the " skull :1. none of the above c. all oi" the she ve 25. in t‘onnuiating the theory of evolution by natural Selection, Dari-vim t't't‘ts atvarc that a. biological variation within populations is important b. population sizes are lintitetl by resource availability C. lite cn‘rimnl‘nem determines 1.vltat traits are advantageous d. some individuals will survive and reproduce, _ others will not all of the above 26. The mulliregional hypothesis thunian origins is generally contrasted with a hypothesis known as: as "Out of ii. t‘rica" b. the aquatic ape hypothesis c. i'oliit heredity d. “Partial l‘tcclintation” e. “Evian the Hunter" 2?. Though other scientists may not appreciate it, aitdiropnlogists have established that there are this many hasie biological groups ol't’fvt'trg humans: a. three h. four c. live id. Silt iii. none of U'lc above lit. hipedaiisni in primates probably evolved: at the end ot'tbe Miocene at the beginning of'the Oligocene at the end nftbe Pleistocene _ at the beginning oi" the Cretaceous e. at the end of the lioiocerte 25'. tiniest Honten wrote the lines “He had a prominent nuehal tnrtts i'fitnd no ideals with which to bore us" must likely itt reference to: a. Homo .ltobt'i't'Ju' _i;l :lttst'rfll'npr'l'ilecttsrgfi'icrmns c. Homo creche-r d e The old man or La~Chape| leans—Saints Professor Ray 3t]. This force of evolution is a change in allele Frequencies produced by random factors: i1. assert i't'c {nonrandom} mating lit. balanced polymorphism -._... genetic drill :1. gene flow e. natural selection 3 I. IIrl-llttil is Ute roost hat-tie function pigepgs in your body at a. to create phenotypical traits the to produce proteins _ c. to cause eyoiution cl. to create new cells e. to change in response to environmental changes 3'1. Your colleague shows you the Fossil From the Miocene pictured below. You know, based on what you can see here, this fossil suggests an affinity to what groan? {Choose the most specific anstt-cr possible hosed on the availnhle evidence.) .. a. rlnfltrnpor'deo h. thnirfc'fl c. Hoaii'nttioe 'cl'. Hoorirrefoleo e'. .l' 'ros'imt'i' 33. What modern nonhuman primate species is isnonai for its ability to create and use tools? EL. fit-irritates i'n'r h. Home sopiens c. .i’rm ponis'ens El. I’rebflfs entet't'ns e".- .l'on troglodytes 34. 1i‘v’hat is the cellular process that creates neor gametes? a. _ Mitosis TMeiosis c. Translation Li. Transcription e. Polygenesis 35. Which oi" the following characteristics can be userl to identify Cereopithecoidea from other members of Anthropoidea? a. Nails on Lheir digits is. Prcbensilc tails 'Ie. 3 premolars it. Bilophodont molars c. Post—orbital closure to. 1i‘ie'hicli ot‘tlte following Forces of evolution is the only source arm 'e'arltititm'? a. gene flow h. natural selection c. genetic drill 'el. mutation c. punctuated equilibrittttt 3T. Ul'the following, Which is derim'reiftr the oldest known hominid l'ound'? a. .-I:'ri':}3it‘herars rorin'n'a-s 2i rrstralopr'tilteens summonses . Urrort'ntogeneosir Kenrmtiltropns planter); Erriteirrntt'rropns .tehodem'i's i1- ain: :- 33. The current evidence on tlte peitgid—hominid divergence suggests it is likely to have occurred; a. 3-5 rnya b. 5-9 n'iya _e. Iti- l2 niya Li. isl— lfi niya c. lE—Et’t niya 39. Shared mills are found in closely related lineages and are particularly useful for researchers to analyxe when determining evolutionary relationships hem-em organisms :i._ ancestral It. acquired analogous C. ' :1. derived 51, nonadaptiye 4L1. Specialitirt can occur as a result el‘ a. geographic isolation h. natural selection acting on local populations c. genetic drifi d. all of the above c. none ot'the above 4]. You see a primate in its natural habitat it: the trim hanging from its tail. Where are you? a. Madagascar Na. in b. Japan Jen- Central or South America d. Equatorial Africa c. Sumatra g. e» . .I. K 42. A sagittal crest is: "I '— _a‘--" seen and daily ever has been seen in gnriilas _b.' a characteristic oi'sotnc austtatopithcctnes c. a characteristic ot'sotnc austtatopithccincs and eariy members of the genus Hume d.“ a raised ridge of burn: an the skull which I increases cranial capacity _e. an ancestral trait [hand in all lietniiieids 43. This early cvelutinnary thetirisl was ctirrcct in ptisiting Lhat a species changes ever time in rcspensc lit iLs envircnrnent. chevcr his attempt at explaining the mechanism by which this occurs—the inheritance ttt'_a_c_g_uifll eharaeMrislies—was incorrect. He was: Gcerges Cuvicr _ Erasmus Darwin .learIuBaptiste Lamark Carolus Linneaus Charles Lyell F‘ 9'91?!” 44. The “l .uey" skelcten at :l. afarenst's war dtscavered at the site of: a. Laetoli Stet'kfontcin Swartttrans lladar b c_. 'd e Uldtwai Gorge 45. In general. the cranium oi" Home ergasterr’erccrus: is thickened {buttressed} is long. low and tlat {platyccphalic} has a cranial capacity between Shh—titlech has no chin all ofthe abevc rho-acre Lu. 46. The 't'aung child was first identified as a hominid because: 'a. the Faramen magnum was placed mttrc directly under the skull than in nnngids b. the forehead was more vertical than in pougids e. the haclc teeth were large it. the brain size was retativeljrr large c. the postcranial material suggested it was a biped 4?. 1t't’hich geographical region shows the greates1 antount oi" nnDNn variation among modern humans? a. New Guinea b. Australia -c. Attica d. Europe e. Nerth America 43. tnclttded within [lornintdae ate the following: El. Simfilfheeas. Artftpfthec'trs. Ansrmt'apr'tnecas. Home [1. Davupr'theeas. .4tra'trrrfcrttirhec'us. Home c.- Ara'r'pt'theetra'. Aristrm'cpr'r-rrct'tra'. Hume d. Aegtprcpitheerts. :1astralcpt'ihcens. Heme c. :Irci’rfit'iheeua. Aegflatcpti'heens. :tm't'rtat'cpt'n'tcetra' 4'}. Which cftltc thilmvittg tasuntiiriic units is a real bicitigieai entity such Lhat its existence can he dcmenstrated in nature? ha. Species b. genus c. kingdom d. phyium c. class 3L1 r‘tueraIepitltecines are best established as heminids L‘IIi Ll'IIC'. basis at: a. archactilcgieal evidence et'tnci LLsc h. cranial and pristcranial ntatcriai which shtiws that they were bipedal e. dental material which shows that they mainly are meat d. cranial evidence which shows they were targe— braincd c. all ni‘thc above 5]. "Die htirniriid gruup that was centernpcrary with some of the robust australtipithccirtcs hut had a significantly [arger braincase was: a. A. nfitrenseasir b Home hcbt‘lted-rtdutplicm'is c. A. newscasts d A. rafrt't‘tmus c Hume trtl‘fltldrh’te‘a' 52. The diagram below shows a primate feeding. 54. Race is not a ineaoingl'ol biological category Flased on the skeletal morphology related to its because: particular loeomolory adaptation, which ot'the — a. there is more variation within a given “racial” Following primates is it‘? group than between groups [1. racial typologies are anificially discrete categories based on stereotyped ‘ideals‘ with a specific set oi" traits {regardless oi" whether even one individual actually possesses all the traits) e. characteristics that have traditionally been used to define races are polygenetie i have a continttous range of expression} and therefore drawing any houndai'ies between them is arbitrary{has no basis in hioiogieai fact} all of the above none ofilie above 55. What does current paleoattlltrotnalogieal research on H. ergret‘lerr’eree'rris lell us? a. they could not hunt {or scavenge‘i h. some individuals were much 1aller than previous species ol‘hominids they did not use tools as part ol'tlieir adaptation they are only IiiLtI'Id it] Africa none of Lhe ahoye r—r- 56. What is the cellular process that creates new somatic cells‘.’ ,- a; Mitosis l1. Meiosis e. Translation d. Transcription e. M on oge nesis 57". H. Embifia‘r’nro’oyeitst's have been found ussneialetl (fl. with tools. J, _____ a. Aeliettlean {lea-3" H'- h. Mousteri uh a. hahoon e: Late Stone age gibbon ti. Ultltiwart c. gorilla e. Bamboo ti. squirrel monkey e. tarsier iii. In a certain population, you lind that [lie heteroaygotes fora particular trait are decreasing in 53. The earliest stone tools are approximately frequency over several generations. You also know , years old. that there is no adaptive advantage to being a. StTIDJlt'Jfl homozygous dominantr homozygous recessive, or h. '.I‘- R million heterozygous, and neither are there deleterious effects - e. 2.5 million for any of these three genotypes. IIMist is the most cl. lflflilt'l likely explanation For what you are observing? e. 1 million . a. assonive{nonrandonifimatiitg is. balanced polymorphism e. gene flow d. natural selection e. nondisjtutciion :19. liow many chromosomes are present in the somatic cells of lturnans {assuming no disjunction has occur-Fed)? a. 23 lZI. 33 e. as d. 2? e. 4'." so. Homo ergosterriereetris is currently recognized as the first hominid to: rs: eat meet it. have populations at ignite out ot'st. Erica c. make and use stone tools d. express iLrell'artistically e. walk hipodaliy (it. 1i‘t’hiclt hominid fossil group has been elearlg,r associated 'erllh the first use ol'eontrolled tire'.’ u. Hon-to s. rterrrio'erriiriiensi.r Home- 5'. sapt'enr Home ergosrerfiaree'ttra' H. ltrri:iii.rft'rrdot',t'i’nsis I2. rlrr.i'rrrn'opit'iiernsiioisei l: .1.- t] (:1. The term Horrro iror'riei'oer'geirs'is: :1. refers to ltomitiids that were transitional from H. liabii'is to H. i'recrrrs’eroosrer is attother term For H. terrestrial-master refers tinlj,r Tn Neattdcrlals cl. refers to hoirtinids that display some derived ' features or" H. .ropt'ens and have some ancestral features Seen in H. erer't‘tra'fergosrer e. reFers to hominids that are completely ittotlem in appearance but lived I flit—25 ksr FF" es. The earliest Hot-art entries from Asia has been dated to approximately: a. l ntj'a la. 1 .fi—I.3 myu c. 3tlt'l-4tlt'l lays d. Still logs c. roe—sot] ls'fti 64. The Neandertals are rto longer present irt the fossil record after: a. Hill} kya la. lCI ltya C. Eli-JD kya ti. EULl' ltya e. Slit} kya I55. The diagram below shows the skull of a llsing nonhuman primate that can best be classified as: a. Aorhropoideo -' 'L‘i. Consider; L‘. Horrrr'rrt'o’ae tl. Horur'flniir't'rr e. Pr'oa'irni'i as. In. Africa, Neandertal fossils have been found at: a Broken Hill is. titandsfoitteirt hilasies River o-touLh LT. -d. Bridtt :3. None of these sites or. New World and tlld World monkeys share many phenotyoic similarities. lt can he reasoitahiy argued that this is due. to a. evolution iitditl'erenteeolugieal niches [1}. parallel evolution e. reproductive fitness d. pu nettiated equilibrium e. niacroevolution E13. Tl'tt: etassif'teatiun ot'hleimdertal fossils as Homo neonderriirriensis implies that Neandertals: a. could not interhreerl with Homosupr'ens sci-plent- la. are not directlyr ancestral to Homo .i'opt'ens .rnpi'cns c. are too different from Homo sopierts .t'ripierrs to he in the same genus - d. are too different from Homosopr'ero' snpi'ens to he in the same species it. i1, i1 and d d9. Bergman's rule: 3. states that the optimum body shape in cold _ climates is long and linear bs' considers the reIatiertship hetween body mass J and surface area in mammals o. works to explain primate social organization d. states that the optimum body shape in warm eiintates is short and stoel-cy e. eonsiders the rate at 1whieh hypothermia may occur in warm climates ‘JU. Dark skin is advantageous for people in tropical locations because it: a. helps prevent anemia ah, helps preteet From overexposure to ultravs'iolet radiation. allows for maximum exposure to ultra-violet radiation. d. promotes synthesis ttfiron e. a and h 1"5 'i'l. Neandertal hrain sine as determined from tlte availahh: lbs siis was: '31. within the upper range oi'tnotlern humans for brain slice is. within the lower range ul'mnriern humans for hrain size e. below the range of modern humans For hraie siae d. smaller d'ien H. ergosterfereetits e. none nt'the shove; no complete Neanderlai adult erania have been Found '32. The frequencies oftlte A, FL and U alleles in humans: a. vary between populations h. are the same in all populations e. can be accounted For in some human populations due to spontaneous combustion a and h e. is and e T3. The heliet'that speeies do not ehange but are the same as when first created is knot-.11 as a. the great chain of being it. heliocentrisni e__ pradunlism thiin of species e. natural selection mpg-3:: 7‘4. Which specialized area of the human cerebral cortex is the primary visual processing area? It. frontal lobe is. parietal lobe e. temporal lobe d. occipital lobe e. cerebellum TS. Fossils ofanatotnically modern humans have been Found :It the site of dated to La ChapelIe-aussfiaints. sin-4o tee Klasies Riser Mouth, lUfl—lED loan Dlduvai Gorge. SCI-[JD [cs-a Elioukoudian. Slit] ltys r': ihmpueroa, 2illl-3llfl kya ...
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Anthropology 1 - Fall 2002 - Ray - Final Exam -...

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