Unit 4.docx - Learning Outcomes Briefly characterize nonspecific defense and innate mechanisms and how that differs from the specific immune response or

Unit 4.docx - Learning Outcomes Briefly characterize...

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Learning Outcomes Briefly characterize nonspecific defense and innate mechanisms and how that differs from the specific immune response or adaptive immunity Describe the origin and generation of both B (humoral immunity) and T lymphocytes (cell mediated immunity), their functions and the different classes of T-lymphocytes Describe antibody production by B cells and the immunoglobulin classes Describe the components of the adaptive immune response including antigens, antibodies, B and T lymphocytes, agglutination, opsonization, and complement fixation and their interactions with each other and macrophages Outline the mechanisms of the four types of hypersensitivity reactions and give clinical examples of each Differentiate the concepts of self-tolerance, passive and active immunization, primary and secondary immune response Describe how the immune system is involved in transplant rejection, autoimmune diseases and immunodeficiency syndromes Nonspecific Defense Mechanisms and Innate Immunity Defense against pathogens consists of 2 types of reactions o Innate immunity is mediated by cells and proteins that are always present, poised to react against infectious pathogens Called into action immediately in response to infection Provide first line of defense A major reaction of innate immunity if inflammation o Adaptive immunity is normally silent and responds (or adapts) to the presence of infectious agents by generating potent mechanisms for neutralizing and eliminating pathogens Many pathogens have evolved to resist innate immunity, and protection against these infections requires the more specialized and powerful mechanisms of adaptive immunity Immune system and immune response generally refer to adaptive immunity Cells are routinely sloughed from the surfaces of both skin and mucous membranes, helping to remove organisms that might have gained a foothold The skin surface normally has a slightly acidic pH o Helps prevent the growth of some organisms The mucus secreted by membranes of the digestive, urogenital and respiratory tracts act as a protective coating Cilia help move foreign particles out of the respiratory tract by their directional movement, sweeping out a film of mucus and any entrapped particles o The cough mechanism helps to expel such material more forcefully Lysosome In tears, acid in the stomach, digestive enzymes all help prevent foreign agents from gaining a foothold Phagocytes, dendritic cells and many other cells, such as epithelial cells, express receptors that sense the presence of infectious agents and substances released from dead cells
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o Have pattern recognition receptors to detect extracellular pathogens that display pathogen associated- molecular patterns (PAMPs) or release damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) Pattern recognition receptors are located in all the cellular compartments where pathogens may be present o
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