18 notes - Rwandan Genocide ● 1994 between april and june...

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Rwandan Genocide 1994 between april and june Abt 800,000 Rwandans killed in abt 100 days by Tutsis Hutus and Tutsis-2 groups that settled in Rwanda abt 2,000 yrs ago Over time they worked together and tolerated one another Developed single language (Kinyarwanda) and set of religious and philosophical beliefs Hutus and Tutsis were cultivators and raised livestock Region became most desnsely populated nation on entire African continent Sustainable food sources Divison begins 18th centurary Rwanda emerged as powerful/populous nation (more cattle= more wealthy) Rulers began measuring power in number of cattle Tutsi were rich in cattle=elite ruling class minority/14% Hutu had less livestock=less power/commoners majority 85% Most Hutu marries hutu and Tutsi w/tutsi=genetic divide with physical features Tutsi-tall, thin, narrow features, fair skin Hutu-shorter, stronger, broad features, darker Colonization Germans 1st europeans to colonize Rwanda in early 1900’s Helped fight off other countries wanting to attack Rwanda and helped make it strong (befor WW1 when Germany was econ strong) After WW1, UN replaced German governing of Rwanda with Belgium Belgium brings more division by using class system in place to their advantage Belgians favored Tutsis (bc looked more like them) by giving them privledges by giving them a Western edu (best edu at the time) which is a huge dividing factor Did it bc Belgians could keep country in control easier and Tutsi’s looked more European Created Us vs Them mentality Couldn’t really tell physically who was what so they required ppl to carry identification cards If couldn’t tell, would be measured to estimate how European you looked to determine where you fell Hutus sick of treatment Party for the Emancipation of the Hutus formed in 1959 called Parmehutu Hutus rebelled against Belgian colonial pwr and Tutsi elite 150,000 Tutsis flee to Burundi (at time part of Rwanda) For many yrs, Hutus fight Tutsis and many Tutsis flee Rwanda
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Dr.Leon-Hutu leader, appleals to Hutus to send Tutsis “back to Ethiopia” via rivers Other hutus said needed to clean up the “filth” and kill the Tutsi “cockroaches”- code word to get message across Negotiations President Habyarimana (hutu prez) and Rwanda Patriotic Front sign peace accord that calls for return of Tutsi refugees Despite peace accord, Rwandan prez stalls in created a unified goc in which pwr is shared at same time, training of militias and ciolence intensifies Trouble Extremist radio station-radio Mille Collines, begins to warn “almost time to cut down tall tress” code for killing all the Tutsis Human right groups warn international community of an impending genocide March 1994, human rights groups are forced to flee Rwanda due to impending calamity, only Red Cross stays UN forced to leave for reasons including violence, world tensions following crisis in Somalia
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