Yule Ch 4(1).pptx - Chapter 4 The Sound Patterns of Language Yule(2017 Conventions for vowels with/ɹ(Harley 2006 43 Phonetics vs phonology in spoken

Yule Ch 4(1).pptx - Chapter 4 The Sound Patterns of...

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Chapter 4: The Sound Patterns of Language Yule (2017)
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Conventions for vowels with /ɹ/ (Harley 2006: 43)
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Phonetics vs. phonology in spoken languages Phonetics Science that studies speech sounds Uses experiments Deals with phones (sounds) Three major components: production, acoustics, perception
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Phonetics vs. phonology Phonology Science that examines the unspoken rules and patterns of a given language’s sound system Sometimes uses experiments The “grammar” of a language’s sounds What speakers think the sounds of their language are Deals with phonemes ( meaningful sounds)
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The phoneme Contrastive unit of speech Abstract category containing multiple different phonetic pronunciations No two people say the same word exactly the same, but native speakers of a language can still recognize the sounds being produced All languages have phonemes Rotokas (East Papuan, New Guinea) – 11 !Xóõ (Tuu, Botswana/Namibia) – 160 English – 37-41 (depending on the dialect) Mary/merry/marry All languages do not have the same phonemes Clicks are sounds English speakers can make, but they are not contrastive speech sounds in English
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Sounds in other languages ?chart=1&datatype=1&speaker=1
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Phonetics vs. Phonology
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Phonetics vs. Phonology
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The phoneme How can you tell something is a phoneme in a given language? See if you can replace it with another sound…does this change the meaning of the word? Ex. /mæt/ ‘mat’
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The phoneme How can you tell something is a phoneme? See if you can replace it with another sound…does this change the meaning of the word? Ex. / m æt/ ‘mat’ What happens if I replace the first sound with /b/? What happens if I replace the first sound with /p/? What happens if I replace the first sound with /s/? What happens if I replace the first sound with /k/? What happens if I replace the first sound with /ʧ/?
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The phoneme How can you tell something is a phoneme? See if you can replace it with another sound…does this change the meaning of the word? Ex. / m æt/ ‘mat’ /bæt/ ‘bat’ /pæt/ ‘pat’ /sæt/ ‘sat’ /kæt/ ‘cat’ /ʧæt/ ‘chat’ Two words that differ by only a single sound are called a minimal pair.
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The phoneme In English, /m/, /b/, /p/, /s/, /k/, and /ʧ/ are all phonemes They are contrastive (replacing one of them with another changes the meaning of the word) We can also do this with vowels: /mæt/ 'mat', /mɪt/ 'mit', /mit/ 'meet' This is one reason we consider affricates to be a single sound: /sɪp/ ‘sip’ , /tɪp/ ‘tip’, /ʃɪp/ ‘ship’, /ʧɪp/ ‘chip’
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The allophone Some sounds are not contrastive in a given language We call non-contrastive speech sounds allophones Allophones: Show up in predictable places Are members of a phoneme category Are not the same for all languages Replacing one phoneme with another changes the word Replacing one allophone with another does not change the word
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Example: English /t/
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