Birdsongs & Calls.pptx - Sound Communication Birdsong Introduction Birdsongs and calls 3 topics – today 9/26 and Tuesday 10/1 Introduction to

Birdsongs & Calls.pptx - Sound Communication Birdsong...

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Sound & Communication: Birdsong Introduction 9/26/19
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Birdsongs and calls 3 topics – today 9/26 and Tuesday 10/1 Introduction to birdsongs Ontogeny of birdsongs Bird calls 10/8: Essay 1 due – comparing mating signals of frogs and birds
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Difference between bird’s calls and songs Difference between innate and learned songs Explore elements of songs Biological mechanisms underlying production and perception of bird songs Adaptive functions of bird songs Hypotheses on the evolution of repertoire size (an issue of phylogeny ) Objectives
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Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Subphylum: Vertebrata Class: Aves Order: Passeriformes Family Genus Species One of most successful vertebrate orders, 5000+ species More than half of all bird species belong to this order Members are called passerines or perching birds passerines < Latin passer for sparrows & other small birds Characteristic behaviors of passerines: Singing, perching, and infants begging for food Two suborders we will explore: passeri (oscines) tyranni (suboscines) Order: Passeriformes
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Members are often called oscines or songbirds or true song birds Sparrows, wrens, starlings, creepers, dippers, mockingbirds, etc. 4000+ species worldwide 40% of bird species Complex muscle control of syrinx – vocal organs Songs are learned Passeri
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Members are often called suboscines Cotingas, manakins, flycatchers, etc. Approx. 1000 species, mostly found in South America More primitive syrinx Songs are innate Tyranni
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Bird vocalizations cover broad frequency range with diverse elements: buzzes , trills , and pure-tone whistles Calls Short and acoustically simple (one or a few short notes) Produced for various purposes (e.g. flight, danger, feeding) Context-specific Produced throughout the year by both sexes Songs Typically longer and more complex Produced during breeding season, usually by males For mating & territory Bird Calls vs. Songs (Kroodsma, 2005)
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During the mating season, male birds produce advertisement songs in order to: Attract potential mates Establish and maintain territory Male songs need to be heard Males need to appeal to females with their genetic qualities Females need to differentiate conspecific from heterospecific songs More complex for some species in which males produce diverse songs Females assess male’s genetic quality Females need to localize the sound source Bird Songs
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The avian respiratory system has a pair of small, rigid lungs, plus 9 ventilating air sacs Bird Vocalization
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Vocalizations are produced when air from lungs passes through the syrinx, located at the base of the trachea An innovation in birds Sole purpose is sound production Syrinx (Goller & Larsen, 1997)
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Air passes between external and internal
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