162117_Lecture 09-Logical Addressing.ppt - Network Layer Logical Addressing And Internetworking 4-1 IPv4 ADDRESSES An IPv4 address is a 32-bit address

162117_Lecture 09-Logical Addressing.ppt - Network Layer...

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Network Layer: Logical Addressing And Internetworking
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4-1 IPv4 ADDRESSES 4-1 IPv4 ADDRESSES An An IPv4 address IPv4 address is a is a 32-bit 32-bit address that uniquely and address that uniquely and universally defines the connection of a device (for universally defines the connection of a device (for example, a computer or a router) to the Internet. example, a computer or a router) to the Internet. Address Space Notations Classful Addressing Classless Addressing Network Address Translation (NAT) Topics discussed in this section: Topics discussed in this section:
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An IPv4 address is 32 bits long. Note The IPv4 addresses are unique and universal. The address space of IPv4 is 2 32 or 4,294,967,296.
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Figure 4.1 Dotted-decimal notation and binary notation for an IPv4 address
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Change the following IPv4 addresses from binary notation to dotted-decimal notation. Example 4.1 Solution We replace each group of 8 bits with its equivalent decimal number and add dots for separation.
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Change the following IPv4 addresses from dotted-decimal notation to binary notation. Example 4.2 Solution We replace each decimal number with its binary equivalent (see Appendix B).
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In classful addressing, the address space is divided into five classes: A, B, C, D, and E. Note
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Table 4.1 Number of blocks and block size in classful IPv4 addressing In classful addressing, a large part of the available addresses were wasted.
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Classful addressing, which is almost obsolete, is replaced with classless addressing.
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Figure 4.3 shows a block of addresses, in both binary and dotted-decimal notation, granted to a small business that needs 16 addresses. We can see that the restrictions are applied to this block. The addresses are contiguous. The number of addresses is a power of 2 (16 = 2 4 ), and the first address is divisible by 16. The first address, when converted to a decimal number, is 3,440,387,360, which when divided by 16 results in 215,024,210. Example 4.5
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Figure 4.3 A block of 16 addresses granted to a small organization
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In IPv4 addressing, a block of addresses can be defined as x.y.z.t / n in which x.y.z.t defines one of the addresses and the / n defines the mask. The first address in the block can be found by setting the rightmost 32 − n bits to 0s.
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A block of addresses is granted to a small organization. We know that one of the addresses is 205.16.37.39/28. What is the first address in the block? Solution The binary representation of the given address is 11001101 00010000 00100101 00100111 If we set 32−28 rightmost bits to 0, we get 11001101 00010000 00100101 0010 0000 or 205.16.37.32 . This is actually the block shown in Figure 4.3.
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