Article Assignment #3 - Chad Labourdette Anth 102 Prof K Lacy Article Assignment#3 “Born to Run” By Adam Summers In the Article “Born to Run,”

Article Assignment #3 - Chad Labourdette Anth 102 Prof K...

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Chad Labourdette Anth 102 Prof. K. Lacy 5/12/2019 Article Assignment #3 “Born to Run” By Adam Summers In the Article “Born to Run,” author Adam Summers dissects “Which evidences supports the idea that endurance running by itself gave early humans a evolutionary advantage, and not just “piggybacking” on our ability to walk.” Summers states the simple facts that long legs and the long stride they enable are important for both walking and running, which both are mechanically different gaits. He makes note that a walking person has its hip swinging over the planted foot whereas the running person bounces, supported by ligaments and tendons that work as springs, storing and releasing energy. Bramble and Lieberman look at a number of preserved fossils that suggest Australopithecus relied with walking and Homo evolved to a bouncy gait. In Australopithecus the attachment point of the Achilles tendon is similarly chimpanzee-like. Lucy had a partial arch, Homo habilis had a full arch, chimpanzees have no arch; in contrast to a modern human with tendons in the sole of foot. The genus Homo have large butt muscles which help stabilize the trunk for endurance running. Australopithecus fossils, the muscle has a smaller area of attachment for muscles from the hip to the base of the spine. Chimpanzees’ shoulders are well-stabilized, tied to the spine and the head by several strong muscles. In humans, the muscles are not as connected because the attachment is relatively loose allowing the shoulders to rotate one way while hips rotate the other- helps with balancing. Part of the trapezius muscle connects to the head, giving us the ability to see where we’re going. Homo has modification of the
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semicircular canals (organs in each inner ear) that tell which way is up. For Homo, makes it easier to sense and counteract a nodding head. Analogous ridge structure does not occur in Lucy. Bramble and Lieberman data show significant changes to the scientific idea of early humans about the pressures that made humans one of the most accomplished endurance-running animals. This conclusion is contrary to the conventional theory that running simply was a byproduct of the human ability to walk, rather it was because natural selection favored the survival of australopithecines that could run and, over time, favored the continuance of human anatomical features that made long-distance running possible. Adam Summers, in his article “Born to Run,” takes a scientific approach as he discusses the wide-ranging analysis conducted by Bramble and Lieberman about their important corrections to the scientific image of early humans regarding endurance running with the early humans. Summers includes a evidences from Bramble’s and Lieberman’s discovery. Summers
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