Monkey calls.pptx - Vocal Communication In Monkeys Today’s Objectives Characteristics of monkey social structure Rhesus macaque food calls Factors

Monkey calls.pptx - Vocal Communication In Monkeys...

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Vocal Communication In Monkeys 11/12/19
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Characteristics of monkey social structure Rhesus macaque food calls : Factors that affect food calls Information encoded in food calls Cost and benefit of withholding food calls Vervet monkey alarm calls : Information encoded in alarm calls Development of alarm call usage Social contexts that affect alarm calls Today’s Objectives
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Order Primates Phylogeny Common classifications Great apes: Humans, Chimpanzees, Bonobos, Gorillas, Orangutans Lesser apes: Gibbons; Monkeys: OWM & NWM OWM: Baboons, Macaques NWM: Squirrel
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All primates: Five-digit hands with opposing thumbs Forward-facing eyes Color vision Size: Apes (except for gibbons) > Monkeys > Prosimians Only apes have full shoulder rotation and have no tails But monkeys and some prosimians have tails Apes and monkeys are diurnal Most prosimians nocturnal A Bit of Primatology
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Families in the Wild Video
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Experiments with newborn infants (3 different conditions): Raised by a muted mother until 2 weeks, and then raised in isolation Separated from hearing mothers ; and Deafened by cochleaectomy at 4 days The vocal development of these infants was no different from other infants raised under normal conditions Ontogeny of Monkey Calls Winter et. al 1972
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These results imply the relative insignificance of acoustic experience and auditory feedback in vocal development However, there is a body of evidence for learning the appropriate context for each calls e.g. V ervet monkey alarm calls Ontogeny of Monkey Calls
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Monkeys form large social groups ( troops ), consisting of: A single dominant male Closely related female families with infants and juveniles Females remain in their natal groups for life: female philopatry Genetically unrelated males Upon maturity, males transfer to neighboring groups: male transfer Some remain on periphery Monkey Social Structure
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Advantage of living in troops: Provide means to secure food resources Provide semi-terrestrial species with protection against predators Individuals recognize one another and remember : Who is dominant to whom (ordered by social rank of mothers) Who is related to whom Who did what to whom in the past! Young members learn social rules from adults Monkey Social Structure
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Family: Cercopithecidae (Old World Monkeys) Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chodata Subphylum: Vertebrata Class: Mammalia Order: Primates Family: Cercopithecidae Genus Species Old World Monkeys Rhesus macaque ( Macaca mulatta ) and Vervet monkeys ( Chlorocebus aethiops ) Photos:
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Family: Cercopithecidae Genus: Macaca Species: Macaca mulatta Rhesus macaques (aka rhesus monkeys) belong to family Cercopithecidae Includes baboons, macaques, langurs, etc.
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