Chapter 9 outline - Chapter 9 “A Wise and Frugal...

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Chapter 9: “A Wise and Frugal Government”: The Democratic-Republicans in Power (1801 - 1815) Emily Freiman I. Introduction - Thomas Jefferson’s inauguration heralded a change from the Federalist-controlled government (John Adams) that had preceded. - Democratic Republican presidents sought to restrain the national government believing that limited government would foster republican virtue. - Federalists advocated a strong national government with centralized authority to promote economic development. - Americans divided by class, race, ethnicity, gender, religion, and region. - The nation’s political system became better defined and its nationalistic and international positions grew clearer over the next 15 years. II. The Jefferson Presidency and the Marshall Court A. Jefferson’s Inaugural - Jefferson stressed the republican virtues of independence, self reliance, equality, and simplicity. - Referred to his presidency as the “Revolution of 1800.” - sought unity by reaching out to his opponents, to heal the wounds of the campaign and to bridge policy differences. - In his inaugural address, Jefferson tried to heal the wounds of the 1800 campaign by appealing to the electorate as citizens with shared common beliefs. B. Democratic-Republican Ascendancy - Jefferson refused to recognize appointments that Adams had made in the last days of his presidency, dismissed federalists customs collectors from new england ports, and awarded vacant treasury and judicial offices to democratic republicans. - Secretary of the Treasury, Albert Gallatin, and Congress, repealed all internal taxes (Whisky tax), cut the army budget in half, reduced the 1802 navy budget by two thirds, and moved to reduce the national debt. - Jefferson saw the national debt as the source of government corruption. - Congress let expire the Sedition Act and the Alien Act, and repealed the Naturalization Act. - The 1802 Act: required wo9uld be citizens only 5 years of residency, loyalty to the constitution, and the forsaking of foreign allegiance and titles. C. War on the Judiciary - To many Democratic Republicans, the judiciary represented a centralizing force, one undemocratic by virtue of rule by unelected judges appointed for life.
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- Jefferson had Congress repeal the Judiciary Act of 1801 (designed to maintain Federalist control over the courts, created 16 new judgeships, which Adams filled by signing “midnight” appointments until his term was just hours away from expiring, and reduced the number of justices on the supreme court from 6 to 5.) - The Democratic-Republican Congress also impeached and removed Federal District Judge John Pickering (elderly, emotional, disturbed alcoholic). They could not, however, remove Supreme Court Justice Samuel Chase (campaigned for Adams). - Criminal accusations, not political disagreements, were the only proper grounds for impeachment.
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