history chp.13 outline.docx - Karla G Davila World History...

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Karla G Davila World History 1/31/18 Chp.13 outline West Entangled, 1600-1750 Economic and Political Effects of Global Commerce Global trade affected not only merchant groups and their sponsoring nations but also individual rulers and common people. French North America-furs, Caribbean-sugar, British(America)- tobacco, Middle and southeast Asia-coffee. If something happened to the products, then economic and political systems would destabilize. Extracting Wealth: Mercantilism Transformations in global relations began in the Atlantic, where the extraction and shipment of gold and silver siphoned wealth from the New World to the Old World. American mining was so lucrative for Spain and that other European powers wanted a share in the bounty, so they, too, launched colonizing ventures in the New World. If silver quickened the pace of global trade, sugar transformed the European diet. No matter what products they supplied, colonies were supposed to provide wealth for their “mother countries. Mercantilism-described a system that saw the world’s wealth as fixed, meaning that any one country’s wealth came to the expense of other countries. Charted Companies- such as the Virginia Company and the Dutch East India Company were the most visible examples of the collaboration between the state and the merchant classes. Exchange and Expansion in North America Entanglement and conflict were unavoidable once newcomers joined Spain and Portugal in the rush to reap riches from American colonies and to take a greater share of global commerce. In their colonies along the Atlantic seaboard, the English established one model for new colonies in the Americas. By contrast, Dutch and French colonies rested not on the expulsion of natives, but on dependence on them. Crucial to the trade between Europeans and Amerindians in the northern parts of North America was the beaver, and an animal for which Indian peoples previously had little use. The distinctive aspect of the fur trade was the Europeans’’ utter dependence on Indian know-how. The Plantation Complex in the Caribbean As late as 1670, the most populous English colony was not on the North American mainland, but on the Caribbean island of Barbados. Sugar was a killing crop. More than disease and inadequate rations, the work itself decimated the enslaved. Amid disease and toil, the enslaved resisted as they could. Caribbean settlement and slaveholdings were not restricted to any single European power. The Slave Trade and Africa Although the slave trade began in the mid-fifteenth century, only the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries did the numbers of human exports from Africa to soar.
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Slavery’s Gender Imbalance Before the Europeans’ arrival, Africa had an already existing system of slave commerce, mainly flowing across the Sahara to North America and Egypt and eastward to the Red Sea and Swahili coast of East Africa.
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