Chapter 11 outline part 1 - Chapter 11 Reforms and...

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Chapter 11: Reforms and Politics in the Age of Jackson (1824 - 1845) Emily Freiman I. Introduction - The enormous transformation of the United States after the War of 1812 sparked a fervor for reform beginning in the 1830s. - Men and women organized to end the abuses of alcohol and prostitution, to improve conditions in prisons and asylums, to oppose secret and anti democratic societies, to end slavery, and to achieve equal right for women. II. From Revival to Reform A. Second Great Awakening - Religion was probably the prime motivating force behind organized benevolence and reform. - The Second Great Awakening offered salvation through personal conversion to all people, regardless of theology. - Christians in all parts of the country tried to right the wrongs of the world. - In the South, huge numbers of people attended revivals, especially women and Africans (turned the South into a “Bible Belt”). - In the North, Charles G. Finney led the revival movement. He converted souls, and preached that salvation could be achieved and evil could be avoided. - The Second Great Awakening raised people's hopes for the Second Coming of the Christian Messiah and the establishment of the Kingdom of God on Earth. - Western New York became known as “The Burned Over District” because it experienced such heated waves of revivalism. - All Revivalists believed in individual self improvement. The doctrine of perfectibility demanded that Christians actively organize and convert others. B. Role of Women - More women than men answered the call of christianity, sustaining the second great awakening and invigorating local churches. - Women brought their families and sometimes their husbands into church and reform. - Women tended to feel personally responsible for counteracting the increasingly secular orientation of the expanding market economy. - It offered women communal ties with other women. They pioneered new, visible, public roles for women and sissented and opposed traditional political leaders. C. The Plight of Prostitutes - An expose in prostitution in NYC illustrates how reform led to political action and dissent. - McDowall’s report on prostitution in NYC caused women to revive the fight against prostitution. - The Female Moral Reform society focused on the men who victimized young women, publicizing the names of clients who entered brothels in NYC. They organized a shelter for refugee and an employment agency to find jobs for prostitutes. - The society expanded its activities and geographical scope, calling itself the American Female Moral Reform Society, the movement successfully crusaded for criminal sanctions against the men who seduce women into prostitution, as well as against the prostitutes themselves. D. Temperance - One of the earliest and strongest concerns for reform resulted in a campaign against the use of alcohol.
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