chapter 26 - Emily Freiman Chapter 26 Peacekeepers and...

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Emily Freiman Chapter 26: Peacekeepers and Warmakers: Americans in the World (1920-1941) 1. American officials participated discreetly in league meetings on public health, prostitution, drug and arms trafficking, counterfeiting of currency, and other questions. American peace societies worked for international stability, many of them keeping alive the Wilsonian preference for a world body. Peace groups such as the fellowship of reconciliation and the national Council for prevention of war drew widespread public support. Most peace groups pointed to the carnage of the first world war and the futility of war as a solution to international problems, but they differed over strategies to ensure world order. The Washington conference met to discuss limits on naval armaments. Britain, the U.S., and Japan were facing naval arms race whose huge military spending endangered economic rehabilitation. The conference produced 3 treaties. The five power treaty set a 10 year moratorium on the construction of capital ships and established total tonnage limits of 500,000 for Britain and the U.S., 300,000 for Japan, and 175,000 for France and Italy. In the nine power treaty, the confirees reaffirmed the open door in China, recognizing Chinese sovereignty. In the four power treaty the U.S., Britain, Japan, and France agreed to respect one another's pacific possessions. The three treaties did not limit submarines, destroyers, or cruisers; nor did they provide enforcement powers for the open door declaration. 2. In the Kellogg briand pact of 1928, 62 nations agreed to condemn recourse to war for the solution of international controversies, and renounce it as an instrument of national policy. The accord passed the Senate 85 to 1, but many senators considered it a little more than a statement of moral preference because it lacked enforcement provisions. Although weak, the Kellogg briand pact reflected popular opinion that war was barbaric and wasteful, and the agreement stimulated serious public discussion of peace and war. But arms limitations, peace packs, and efforts by peace groups in international institutions all failed to muzzle the dogs of war, which fed on the economic troubles that upended world order. 3. Because of WWI, the U.S. became a creditor nation and the financial capital of the world. By the late 1920s the U.S. produced nearly half of the worlds industrial goods and ranked first among exporters. Europeans watched American economic expansion with wariness and branded the U.S. stingy for its handling of WWI debts and reparations. A triangular relationship developed: American investors money flowed to Germany, Germany paid reparations to the Allies, and the Allies then paid some of their debts to the U.S. By 1932 some 25 nations had retaliated against rising American tariffs by imposing higher rates on foreign imports.
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