Chapter 18 Questions - Emily Freiman Chapter 18 Questions...

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Emily Freiman Chapter 18 Questions 1a. Thomas Edison: In 1876, Thomas Edison and his associates set up a laboratory in a wooden shed in Menlo Park, New Jersey. Most of Edison's more than 1000 inventions used electricity to transmit light, sounds, and images. In 1878 he formed the Edison Electric Light Company and embarked on a search for a cheap, efficient means of indoor lighting. Edison perfected an incandescent bulb thereby extending the useful life of the bulb. At the same time, he devised a system of power generation and distribution to provide convenient power to a large number of customers. In 1880 he illuminated Menlo Park with 40 incandescent bulbs, and in 1882 he built a power plant that could light 85 buildings in NY. Edison's system of direct current could transmit electric power only a mile or two. 1b. George Westinghouse: George Westinghouse, a young inventor from Schenectady, NY, who had become famous for devising an air brake for railroad cars, solved the problem. Westinghouse purchased patent rights to generators that used alternating current and transformers that reduced high voltage power to lower voltage levels, thus making transmission over long distances cheaper. General Electric and Westinghouse Electric encouraged the practical application of electricity by establishing research labs that paid scientists to create electrical products for everyday use. 1c. Henry Ford: Henry Ford was the era’s most visionary manufacturer. Henry ford applied organizational genius to internal combustion engines and spawned a massive industry. Fords goal was to mass produce thousands of identical cars in exactly the same way. Ford engineers set up assembly lines that drastically reduced the time and cost of producing cars. The Ford Motor Company sold thousands of cars. Rising automobile production created more jobs, higher earnings, and greater profits in related industries such as oil, paint, rubber, and glass. As well, the internal-combustion engine helped give birth to the manufacture of trucks, buses, and eventually airplanes. Ford enabled his workers to buy the cars they produced by offering them the 5-dollar-day plan which combined wages and profit sharing equal to 5 dollars a day. 1d. DuPont Family: Dupont's had been manufacturing gunpowder since the early 1800s. In 1902, 3 cousins, Alfred, Coleman, and Pierre, took over E.I. DuPont de Nemours and Company and broadened production. In 1911, DuPont scientists and engineers working in the nation's first research lab adapted cellulose to the production of new materials such as photographic film, rubber, lacquer textile fibers, and plastics; the innovation wrought a significant transformation in consumer products. The company also pioneered methods of efficient management, accounting, and reinvestment of earnings, all of which contributed to controlled production, better recordkeeping, and higher profits.
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