Chapter 13 outline - Chapter 13 People and Communities in a...

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Chapter 13: People and Communities in a Slave Society: The South (1830 - 1860) Emily Freiman I. Introduction - Between 1830 and 1860 the South developed into the world’s largest slaveholding society. - Southerners white and black, slaveholders and nonslaveholders developed a culture quite different from their northern counterparts. - Slavery influenced not only southern economics values, customs, and laws, but also the region’s relationship to the nation. - When Pierce Butler was broke, his slaves were auctioned off in the largest slave auction in American history which lasted 2 days. Blacks called i the “weeping time,” and Butler had assumed 303,850 dollars by selling 436 slaves. - The North saw it as threatening and immoral and was an emerging market economy embarking on an industrial revolution. II. The “Peculiar” South? - There has long been a tendency to equate certain American values such as materialism, individualism, and faith in progress with the North, in the nineteenth century, and to equate values such as tradition, conservatism, and family loyalty to the South. - The South was static, and the North was dynamic, leading up to the Civil war. The great fact of succession and the Confederacy will always give the South a distinct place in American history. A. South-North Similarity - North and South were similar in geographic size, shared the experience of the American Revolution, had the same heroes and political ideology, had a common language, worshiped the same god, lived under the same Constitution, shared a common mixture of nationalism and localism in their attitude towards government, and believed in the American mission. - Both regions also shared in the economic booms and busts of the nation, shared an expanding capitalist economy, and both had ruling classes. - But, as slavery and the plantation economy expanded, the South did not become a land of individual opportunity in quite the same manner as the North. B. South-North Dissimilarity - The South's climate and longer growing season gave it an unmistakable rural and agricultural destiny. The South developed as a biracial society of brutal inequality, where the liberty of one race directly depended on the enslavement of another. Population density was low. - Southerners were strongly committed to their churches, and some universities, but all institutions were far less developed than in the North. The largest southern industry was lumbering. - The South was slower than the North to develop a unified market economy and a regional transportation network. Slavery slowed urban growth. - The Population density in the North was almost 3 times higher than the South. Factories were common in the North and rare in the South. The South did not attract immigrants as readily as the North. - Southern evangelicalism was distinct from its Northern practice. In the South, baptists and methodists concentrated on personal rather than social improvement. The North, was a major
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wellspring of reform movements. The only reform movements in the South, such as temperance, focused on personal behavior, not social reform.
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