Solar Energy.ppt - SWAMI PARMANAND COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY SEMINAR ON STEAM POWER PLANT Submitted To:Er Kapil Sethi H.O.D of E.E.E Deptt

Solar Energy.ppt - SWAMI PARMANAND COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING...

This preview shows page 1 out of 20 pages.

Unformatted text preview: SWAMI PARMANAND COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY SEMINAR ON STEAM POWER PLANT Submitted To:Er. Kapil Sethi H.O.D of E.E.E Deptt. Submitted By:Raushan Kumar Roll No:-1611815 Sem. EEE Branch/ 7th Solar Energy: The Ultimate Renewable Resource What is Solar Energy? Originates with the thermonuclear fusion reactions occurring in the sun. Represents the entire electromagnetic radiation (visible light, infrared, ultraviolet, xrays, and radio waves). Radiant energy from the sun has powered life on Earth for many millions of years. Advantages and Disadvantages Advantages All chemical and radioactive polluting byproducts of the thermonuclear reactions remain behind on the sun, while only pure radiant energy reaches the Earth. Energy reaching the earth is incredible. By one calculation, 30 days of sunshine striking the Earth have the energy equivalent of the total of all the planet’s fossil fuels, both used and unused! Disadvantages Sun does not shine consistently. Solar energy is a diffuse source. To harness it, we must concentrate it into an amount and form that we can use, such as heat and electricity. Addressed by approaching the problem through: 1) collection, 2) conversion, 3) storage. Solar Energy to Heat Living Spaces Proper design of a building is for it to act as a solar collector and storage unit. This is achieved through three elements: insulation, collection, and storage. Solar Energy to Heat Water A flat-plate collector is used to absorb the sun’s energy to heat the water. The water circulates throughout the closed system due to convection currents. Tanks of hot water are used as storage. Photovoltaics Photo+voltaic = convert light to electricity How does it work The heart of a photovoltaic system is a solid-state device called a solar cell. Silicon Shared electrons Si Si Si Si Si Si Si Si Si Si Si Si - Si Si Silicon is group IV element – with 4 electrons in their valence shell. When silicon atoms are brought together, each atom forms covalent bond with 4 silicon atoms in a tetrahedron geometry. How Solar Cells Work hv > Eg p - - - + + + + + n Photons in sunlight hit the solar panel and are absorbed by semiconducting materials to create electron hole pairs. Electrons (negatively charged) are knocked loose from their atoms, allowing them to flow through the material to produce electricity. Cost vs. Efficiency Tradeof Efficiency Large Grain Single Crystals d Long d High High Cost 1/2 Small Grain and/or Polycrystalline Solids d Long d Low Lower Cost decreases as grain size (and cost) decreases First Generation – Single Junction Silicon Cells 89.6% of 2007 Production 45.2% Single Crystal Si 42.2% Multi-crystal SI Limit efficiency 31% Single crystal silicon - 16-19% efficiency Multi-crystal silicon - 14-15% efficiency Best efficiency by SunPower Inc 22% Silicon Cell Average Efficiency Second Generation – Thin Film Cells CdTe 4.7% & CIGS 0.5% of 2007 Production New materials and processes to improve efficiency and reduce cost. Thin film cells use about 1% of the expensive semiconductors compared to First Generation cells. CdTe – 8 – 11% efficiency (18% demonstrated) CIGS – 7-11% efficiency (20% demonstrated) Third Generation – Multi-junction Cells Enhance poor electrical performance while maintaining very low production costs. Current research is targeting conversion efficiencies of 30-60% while retaining low cost materials and manufacturing techniques. Multi-junction cells – 30% efficiency (40-43% demonstrated) Main Application Areas – Off-grid Space Water Pumping Telecom Solar Home Systems Main Application Areas Grid Connected Commercial Building Systems (50 kW) Residential Home Systems (2-8 kW) PV Power Plants ( > 100 kW) Future Energy Mix Nanotechnology Solar Cell Design Interpenetrating Nanostructured Networks glass transparent electrode + - 100 nm metal electrode Dye Sensitized Solar Cell ...
View Full Document

  • Spring '18
  • Vishal Anand

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern

Ask Expert Tutors You can ask You can ask ( soon) You can ask (will expire )
Answers in as fast as 15 minutes