class02.ppt - CS2136 Paradigms of Computation Class 02 History of Programming Languages(continued from last time Copyright 2001 2004 Michael J Ciaraldi

class02.ppt - CS2136 Paradigms of Computation Class 02...

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1 CS2136: Paradigms of Computation Class 02: History of Programming Languages (continued from last time) Copyright 2001 - 2004 Michael J. Ciaraldi and David Finkel
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2 Where Were We By 1960? Fortran was well established for science and engineering work. COBOL was just getting started. LISP was just at MIT. Algol was just on paper. All systems programming was done in assembler. Most commercial programming was done in now-obsolete proprietary languages.
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3 1960s Some outgrowths from the ’50s Fortran was extended and standardized. COBOL became very widely used; it was the first standardized language on multiple platforms. Burroughs adopted Algol as its systems programming language. LISP became widely used in AI (Artificial Intelligence) work.
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4 1960s II 1964: BASIC “Beginner’s All-Purpose Symbolic Instruction Code” John Kemeny and Thomas Kurtz (Dartmouth) Runnable from terminals on time-sharing systems; built-in editor Good error checking Line numbers No parameters or local variables Originally compiled; mostly interpreted
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5 1960s III 1965: PL/I “Programming Language One” First ran on IBM System/360 series. Structured like Algol Numeric power of Fortran Data processing power of COBOL Data structures, generic functions Suitable for systems programming Supports multi-tasking
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6 1960s IV 1962: Simula I “Simulation Language” Ole-Johan Dahl (Norway) Inherent multi-tasking Led to…
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7 1960s V 1967: Simula 67 A general-purpose language The first language with objects, classes, and subclasses
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8 1960s VI 1968-1969: Pascal Niklaus Wirth (ETH, Zurich) Modeled after Algol No GOTO Very strongly typed Procedures nested inside each other Designed for teaching programming
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9 1960s VII 1968: Structured Programming by Dijkstra, Dahl, and Hoare.
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10 Where Were We By 1970? COBOL was the most widely used language, especially in business. Fortran was the most widely used language for science and engineering. Almost no one had heard of Simula or Pascal.
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